Thumbnail Image

Seasonal distribution, movements and taxonomic status of bluewhales (Balaenoptera musculus) in the northern Indian Ocean







Also available in:
No results found.

Related items

Showing items related by metadata.

  • Thumbnail Image
    Document
    Summary report on cruise of the R/V Shoyo Maru in the north Arabian Sea, 2 October 1976 - 13 January 1977 1977
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    At the Fifth session of the IOFC Executive Committee held in Rome in April 1976, the Indian Ocean Programme reported its success in bringing the R/V Shoyo Maru to the Arabian Sea and adjacent waters off India and Pakistan in November and December 1976. The present paper gives a brief description of the survey and its results, summarized from the original report in Japanese which will be published by the Fishery Agency of Japan in 1977. The activities covered oceanographic observation, convention al biological survey (sighting of pelagic shoals and collection of fishes) and acoustic survey. In spite of special attention, the squid Sympleototeuthis oualaniensis did not appear abundantly during the present cruise. The equatorial undercurrent did not exist in the equatorial waters during the transitional period, from the southwest monsoon to the northeast monsoon. Although the upwelling was recognized in the western part of the Second Area in the 1975 cruise, this was not encountered in the 1976 cruise. This might be attributed to the difference in the survey period; the first cruise in 1975 covered the late southwest monsoon season while the present cruise the early northeast monsoon season. The coastal upwelling on the continental slope was evidently less remarkable during the present cruise than during the previous one. The pelagic shoals again appeared rather scarce in the offshore waters throughout the survey period as was the previous cruise. There was a considerable number of important commercial fishes, almost the same species of the previous survey, on the Pakistani continental shelf, but none of them appeared to be large enough to attract a large-scale operation. In the present survey, the squids were not caught as often as in the previous survey. The index of echo abundance in the Second Area in 1976 was half of that in 1975. Since the duration of our cruise was very limited, it was difficult to find any reasoning for such year-to-year variation. However, it might be suggested that the squids moved toward the west coast of India or the southern Arabian Peninsula, or a deeper layer during the northeast monsoon season.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Meeting
    Post nesting migration of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in the western Indian Ocean 2013
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    Marine turtles do not recognize political boundaries, nor do they have regard for Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ s), cooperative agreements, intertiol conventions, or memoranda of understanding between countries. So is it in the Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO), a region that hosts some of the most important green turtle nesting sites in the world, most of which are isolated on remote islands (e.g. Europa and Glorieuses, Aldabra and Cosmoledo, Moheli and Mayotte). This region of the world is known t o have year round nesting of green turtles but all sites display a marked nesting season. However, very little is known about migratory pathways that sea turtles ply between their nesting and feeding grounds in this region where this species faces numerous threats such as fisheries interaction at both open sea and coastal waters. From 2009 to 2011, we deployed 81 satellite transmitters on nesting green turtle females during (d) and opposite (o) to the nesting peak in 5 important rookeries of the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO): Europa (Nd=10; No=10), Glorieuses (Nd= 10; No=10), Tromelin (Nd= 10; No=10), Mayotte (Nd=10; No=10) and Mohéli (Nd=7; No=3) and collected previous 24 old tracks in the area for a total of 105 tracks. First results showed that 39.7% of the tracked turtles used Madagascar costal foraging ground while more than 50% used the east African ones (Mozambique (32,0%), Kenya (3.8%), Tanzania (15,4%) and Somalia (2,5%)). It is worthwhile noting that the North Mozambique and South Tanzania remain the most important foraging ground for the tracked turtle (45% of the tracked turtles), but that they are mainly used by turtles tagged during the nesting season. On the other hand, we highlight here that green turtles also use a large range of foraging ground in the area (55% of the tagged turtles), some of them being hot spots (e.g. south of Maputo – Mozambique, Tulear lagoon – Madagascar). Spatial distribution estimation allowed identifying important year round coastal and oceanic migrating corridors: 2 oceanic corridors, (1) in the north of the Mozambique Channel (11°S - 14°S) and (2) the south of the Mozambique Chanel (17°S - 23°S), more particularly from the north of Europa to the north of Mozambique (38°E - 41°E); and 2 coastal corridors (1) The east African coast, between 16°S (Mozambique) and 7°S (Tanzania), and (2) all the west coast of Madagascar. The extreme north of Madagascar is also an important coastal migratory corridor The 105 tracked green turt les also crossed as many as nine different EEZs in the region before reaching their foraging grounds, which themselves are shared by six countries. Such spatial migrating pattern of adult green turtle, the temporal corridors and the regiol feeding hot spots identified are of high importance to implement targeted mitigating measures for artisal and industrial fisheries and encourage conservation on key foraging grounds.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    A preliminary value chain analysis of shark fisheries in Madagascar 2014
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    Madagascar’s extensive (~6,500 km) coastline comprises the most diverse and extensive shallow marine habitats in the Western Indian Ocean, supporting an estimated 123 shark and ray species. Sharks have featured in Madagascar’s fisheries for at least 100 years, with exports recorded as early as the 1920’s. Globally, shark fins are one of the most highly valued seafood items and represent a critical and significant source of cash for some of Madagascar’s isolated fishing communities. The global sh ark fin trade is estimated to be worth between US$400-500 million a year. Increases in the shark trade over the last two decades is closely linked to economic growth in China, where the market is concentrated, and the ripple effects of this increase in demand have been felt worldwide. Scientific estimates for the number of sharks killed annually can be up to 100 million individuals and sharks are on the whole overexploited. Today, thirty percent of all shark and ray species are now classified as ‘Threatened’ or ‘Near Threatened’ with extinction according to the IUCN Red List, although this number is likely to be higher given that the status of almost half (47%) of shark species cannot be scientifically assessed due to a lack of data. There is strong evidence that shark overexploitation occurs in Malagasy waters and that shark populations in the area are declining rapidly. Although reliable figures on Madagascar’s domestic shark fishery are sparse, anecdotal observations report declines in shark numbers within the last two decades. According to national studies based only on official export data, recorded shark fin exports stood at approximately 32 tonnes in 2010, a decrease from 65 tonnes in 1994. Lack of data on catches, particularly from artisanal fisheries, bycatch by licensed industrial vessels, and by illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing by foreign industrial vessels, means these official export figures are likely to be gross underestimates of the actual pro duction. Madagascar’s shark fishery is comprised of three main fisheries according to Malagasy legislation: artisanal, traditional and industrial fisheries. Madagascar’s artisanal and traditional shark fisheries extend along the entire west coast, with the most important traditional fisheries along the southwest coast. Overfishing has led to fisher migration, spreading the fishery along the entire west coast and also much of the north. There is no established traditional shark fishery along the east coast due to adverse sea conditions, whilst the south is the least developed of all sites surveyed for this report. Throughout the country, surveyed fishers report catching shark for the purposes of income from selling fins (88%) and meat (77%), and as a source of food (31%), demonstrating the important link to the international shark fin trade. Shark fin exports reach the international market mostly through two principal buyers and exporters, namely the Sea Reine and Sin Hing, Chinese comp anies based in Antananarivo. The supply chain for shark fins is both complex and rather fluid with fishers selling either fresh (wet) or dried fins to collectors and fins graded in value according to size and quality. Some fishers bypass the local collectors and sell dried fins directly to main buyers in larger towns to obtain a better price, which can be a mark-up of 40% for high quality fins. The value of shark fins during the study period (2012) varies according to their condition (wet or dri ed), quality (four recognised grades) and their position in the supply chain. Robust data was collected for the first two levels of the supply chain but was lacking for the higher levels (main buyer to exporter). Guitarfish fins were on the whole, twice as valuable as shark fins and therefore both in demand and a fishing target. Since 2012 the average value of shark fins has dropped. Trade in shark meat is also well establishedin Madagascar, with meat sold into a supply chain that serves mainly local and national (provincial) markets but can also be exported to the Comoros. Shark meat does not fetch a high price compared to other fish or meats but can be an important supplementary source of income or nutrition in some cases. Generally fresh meat is sold and consumed locally whilst dried salted meat is bought by collectors and transported to inland urban markets in Madagascar. Some dried shark meat is also exported. ANGAP Association Nationale pour la Gestion des Aires Protégées ASH Aut orité Sanitaire Halieutique BAD Banque Africaine de Dévelopement CBD Convention on Biological Diversity CCPS Cellule de la Coordination de la Politique Sectorielle/MPRH CLB/VOI Communauté Locale de Base/Vondron’Olona Ifatony CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora COI Commission de l’océan Indien COS Certificat d’Origine et de Salubrité CSP Centre de Surveillance des Pêches CMS Convention on Migratory Species DGRH Direction de la Gestion des Ressourc es Halieutiques/MPRH DPRH Direction de la Pêche et des Ressources Halieutiques/MPRH DRPR Direction Régionale de la Pêche et des Ressources Halieutiques FAO Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations RFMO Regional Fishery Management Organization GEF Global Environnement Facility GTZ Gesellschaft Für Technische Zusammenarbeit IPOA Sharks – International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks IOTC Indian Ocean Tuna Commission IUU Illegal, Unregulated and Unreport ed JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency, Agence Japonaise de Coopération Internationale MAEP Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Elevage et de la Pêche MGA Malgasy Ariary MNP Madagascar National Parks (previously ANGAP) MPRH Ministère de la Pêche et des Ressources Halieutiques NGO Non Governmental Organisations SWIOFP/OISO South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project, Programme de l’Océan Indien Sud- Occidental UNGA United Nations General Assembly WIO Western Indian Ocean WWF World Wild Fund fo r Nature 6 A preliminary value chain analysis of shark fisheries in Madagascar 7 8 A preliminary value chain analysis of shark fisheries in Madagascar Foreign commercial fishing fleets have also been prevalent in Malagasy waters since at least the 1980’s and primarily target shark and larger pelagic fish, with significant shark bycatch for those fisheries not directly targeting sharks. Almost none of the sharks caught are landed in Madagascar. IUU fishing within Madagascar’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a well-established issue, with the shark fishery specifically targeted by both licensed and unlicenced vessels. Despite the significant pressures on Madagascar’s shark fishery and the enormous socio-ecological and economic value of the trade, the country has no coherent or functioning shark conservation strategy or legislation. The lack of a national strategy is largely due to deficiencies in data on fishing effort, catches, landings and discards in all commercial fisheries for sh ark. This is compounded by a paucity of information on shark ecology, fisheries status and the socioeconomic value of the trade throughout Madagascar. Furthermore, in isolated coastal areas with little infrastructure, the sale of high value dried shark fins has been one of the few ways local Malagasy fishermen can earn cash. In this context, the diverse and unconnected stakeholders have no basis or motivation to enact meaningful conservation measures, particularly when economic imperatives outwe igh any other consideration. In a country as poor as Madagascar, even minor poverty relief is important, leading fishers to continue shark fishing despite low catches and diminishing returns for fishing effort, further threatening the future of the fishery. There is an urgent need to actively and aggressively manage Madagascar’s shark fishery. The rapid decline of sharks is likely to have several negative socioeconomic and ecological impacts, including the loss of livelihoods and protein for tho se people who rely on them and potentially altering the trophic structure of marine and coastal ecosystems. However, putting in place conservation measures and enforcing regulations remains a formidable challenge. Much of Madagascar’s fishery takes place in remote fishing grounds scattered over thousands of kilometres of coastline; the fishers are highly mobile and move great distances to seek productive fishing grounds; the government lacks the means to monitor these fisheries and enforce regul ations; and the markets are informal and closed. Significant steps must be taken in order to effectively prevent the collapse of Madagascar’s shark fishery. A widespread campaign to regulate both international and local shark fishing must occur simultaneously for any significant positive change to occur. For this to take place scientifically robust data must be collected over the long term. For any national conservation strategies to be implemented effectively, they should be based on data colle cted through participative monitoring and implemented at the national level. Such strategies should apply to artisanal and traditional fisheries, as well as to international commercial fishing vessels operating within the EEZ. Madagascar’s existing locally-managed marine areas are a vehicle through which coastal shark management strategies could be implemented. However an increase in both technical and logistical capacity will be required for effective management at the local, regional and natio nal level, together with strong enforcement support to LMMAs. Although it is recommended that the government develops appropriate national legislation and put in place proper monitoring and export restrictions, the onus remains heavily on the international community, with global legislation driving the regulation or lack of regulation of the global shark trade. Particular attention needs to be paid to those countries with distant water fleets / vessels operating within Madagascar’s EEZ, both leg ally and illegally. Without proper regulation of their shark fishing effort, partly through RFMO’s, little progress can be made.

Users also downloaded

Showing related downloaded files

No results found.