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Planning for human-wildlife coexistence









FAO and IUCN SSC HWCCSG. 2023. Planning for human-wildlife coexistence. Rome.



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    Understanding animal behaviour patterns for long-term solutions to human-wildlife conflict 2023
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    This case study deals with the problem of baboons causing damage to pine plantations in Zimbabwe. Traditional lethal control methods failed to provide a long-term solution, prompting a wildlife manager to study baboon behavior and identify the underlying causes. The damage was triggered by stress and anxiety resulting from the dense plantation canopies, disrupting baboons' home range boundaries. By targeting specific troops and individuals causing the damage and addressing the root drivers, the manager successfully stopped the damage in certain areas. Lessons learned emphasized the importance of addressing underlying drivers, using targeted management, and involving stakeholders to promote coexistence. Immediate success from lethal control hindered long-term solutions. Encouraging coexistence required changing attitudes and understanding the value of non-lethal approaches. The success of the approach relied on early engagement, addressing drivers, and implementing incentives or agreements to reduce triggering factors. The challenge of mainstreaming observation-based approaches without standard scientific protocols was noted. Overall, understanding animal behavior patterns proved effective in finding sustainable solutions to human-wildlife conflict.
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    Building institutional and local community capacity to manage human-wildlife conflict 2023
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    This case study comes from Mozambique, where human-wildlife conflict was not a new issue in 2010. Incidents had been increasing, particularly those involving crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus, and also elephants Loxodonta africana and lions Panthera leo. These incidents impacted food security, local community incomes, well-being and safety, and were exacerbated by poverty levels. Human-wildlife conflict had become a major concern for the Government of Mozambique and led them to formulate a National Strategy for Human-Wildlife Conflict Management (2009-2014). The government approved the Strategy in 2009, and from 2010 its implementation was supported by FAO, through a Technical Cooperation Programme Project The FAO project's objective was to design an implementation plan for the Strategy with the expressed goal of mitigating human-wildlife conflicts and build the needed capacity in the country to be able to do so. This case study focuses on how capacity was built in Mozambique to implement the Strategy. By building capacity in the national government agencies, the FAO project empowered the government agencies to guide and implement the country's national strategy on human-wildlife conflict. The overhauled database, covering five years (2006-2010), was presented at the Council of Ministers, in order to underscore the importance of the situation in Mozambique, inform the Ministers of the problem, and highlight some of the tools available to reduce the impacts of human-wildlife conflict, particularly the crocodile cages that had been used and improved.
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    Developing a community guardian programme to reduce livestock depredation 2023
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    The case study focuses on the Trans-Kalahari Predator Programme (TKPP), part of Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, aiming to reduce human-wildlife conflict, particularly livestock depredation, near Hwange National Park in Zimbabwe. The TKPP developed a community guardian program called the Long Shields Lion Guardian Programme (LSLGP). Local men and women were recruited to serve as guardians and protect livestock from predators. They used GPS collars on potential problem lions, alerting farmers via WhatsApp to move their livestock when lions approached. The guardians also hazed lions using noise makers. Additionally, the TKPP introduced mobile communal bomas to protect livestock and fertilize crop fields. The LSLGP resulted in a 50% reduction in livestock losses by lions, and fewer lions were killed in retaliation. Crop yields in fields with mobile bomas increased by up to 50%, improving food security. Local communities showed a positive attitude towards coexisting with lions and were willing to pay for the programs. Lessons learned include the importance of local researchers, communication, community involvement, and flexibility in implementation.

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