2.1 Productivity differences in agriculture and non-agriculture sectors between the 10th and 90th percentile of the world income distribution, 2019 (constant 2015 USD per worker)

2.2 The strength of comparative advantage in food and agricultural markets

3.1 Classification of formats of the inclusion of environment-related provisions in regional trade agreements

3.2 Selected examples of regional trade agreements with embedded references to voluntary certification schemes

4.1 Scenario assumptions


1.1 Globalization patterns in goods and services, 1995–2020

1.2 The evolution of global food and agricultural trade, 1995–2020

1.3 Average connectivity between countries in the global food and agricultural trade network, 1995–2019

1.4 The evolution of food and agricultural trade links, 1995–2019

1.5 Food and agricultural trade intensity, 1995 and 2019

1.6 Average closeness connectivity by country group, 1995–2019

1.7 The food and agricultural trade network and trade hubs in 1995 and 2019

1.8 The decentralization of food and agricultural trade links, 1995–2019

1.9 The tendency of trading food and agricultural products within regions and income groups, 1995–2019

1.10 Regional food and agricultural trade clusters, 1995–2019

1.11 The number of regional trade agreements by country, 2022

1.12 Regional trade agreements between countries by regions (percent), 2022

1.13 Food and agricultural trade within and between regions, 1995 and 2019

1.14 Distribution of connectivity across countries, normalized, 1995–2019

1.15 Distribution of trade intensity across countries, normalized, 1995–2019

1.16 Distribution of connectivity across products and countries, normalized, 1995–2019

1.17 Connectivity across products and countries at country level, 2019

2.1 Productivity in agriculture and non-agriculture sectors, 2019

2.2 Agricultural productivity and Gross Domestic Product per capita, 2019

2.3 Applied tariffs in agriculture, 1995–1999 and 2016–2020

2.4 Applied tariffs in agriculture and manufacturing, average 2016–2020

2.5 Bilateral trade flows and relative prices

2.6 Country competitiveness in the global food and agricultural market, 2018

2.7 Bilateral trade costs according to country income level classification, selected trade partners and average costs per country income classification (ad valorem equivalent), 2017

2.8 Bilateral trade costs and intraregional averages (ad valorem equivalent), 2017

2.9 Trade openness, 2018

2.10 Share of imports and domestic production in total food consumption, 2018

3.1 The relationship between water stress and net trade positions, 2018 and 2019

3.2 Relationship between cropland and net trade positions, 2019

3.3 Evolution of forest area in selected countries, 1990–2020

3.4 Agreements with environment-related provisions, 1957–2019

3.5 Selected agreements with a range of types of environment-related provisions

4.1 Multilateral liberalization and integration: Effects on GDP, food security, and food and agricultural trade

4.2 Liberalization and integration in Africa: Effects on GDP, food security, and food and agricultural trade

4.3 Liberalization and integration in Asia and Oceania: Effects on GDP, food security, and food and agricultural trade

4.4 Intra-African exports and African exports to other regions, food and agricultural products, 2019


1.1 Trade network analysis

1.2 The role of regional trade agreements

1.3 The war in Ukraine and the resilience of the global food and agricultural trade network

2.1 Absolute advantage and comparative advantage in trade

2.2 Trade, food security and nutrition

2.3 Trade costs and how they are measured

2.4 Structural gravity models and the fundamental drivers of trade

2.5 Trade openness impacts: Growth, productivity and inequality

3.1 Trade and biodiversity: The importance of regulation

3.2 European Commission proposals for regulating deforestation-free products and corporate sustainability due diligence

3.3 WTO environmental cases: Shrimp-Turtle and Brazil-Retreaded Tyres

4.1 The political economy of protection of food and agriculture

4.2 Deep trade agreements

4.3 Analysing economic integration and trade cost reduction scenarios

4.4 The African Continental Free Trade Area

4.5 The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

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