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Water: Where water comes from

Better Farming Series, no. 28 (1981)












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    Project
    Technical Support to Water and Soil Rehabilitation for Improved Climate Resilience in Golestan, Khouzestan and Lorestan Provinces - TCP/IRA/3703 2022
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    Following spring floods in the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2019 the government requested FAO to assist the Ministry of Agriculture Jahad in the rehabilitation of the three most affected provinces of Lorestan Khouzestan and Golestan The agriculture sector in these provinces had suffered serious losses as a result of damage to land and water resources The recovery process was further impeded by the significant level of soil erosion caused by the flood and rainwaters The impact on soils will have longer term effects on land productivity and yields in these areas and, in some cases, it may be necessary to change land use, resulting in the loss of farms and creating a need for alternative livelihood opportunities for flood affected farmers that are resilient to climate change impacts and natural hazards In Lorestan and Khouzestan provinces, both of which have distinct ecological characteristics, the floods damaged not only farmlands but also agricultural infrastructures Lorestan province is a mountainous region with steeped farmlands and deep valleys The sudden over accumulation of rain destroyed bridges and orchards, and washed away three pumping stations, used to irrigate over 5 000 ha of farms Khouzestan province, on the other hand, is a flat plain with low elevation Three months after the floods, water logging and an increase in land salinity were observed in some areas, particularly in areas that are lower than the surrounding plain.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Improved on-farm participatory water management to reduce mining of groundwater in Yemen 2001
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    Water shortage is the most critical issue facing the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region and is likely to be exacerbated in the future because of high population growth and continuing decline in the renewable resources resulting from climate change, pollution and overdraft of groundwater. Despite this alarming situation, water management still faces major drawbacks as the largest share is used for agricultural production under traditional farming practices and low on-farm water use effici ency, resulting in very low output per unit of water use and consequently low economic returns from investments. However, because of the scarcity and unreliability of precipitation in the region, the improvement of irrigated farming systems still presents a high potential in the region and will undoubtedly continue to attract investment in the future, in comparison with rainfed systems. The present study is based on the outputs of several projects and sectoral studies, particularly a World Bank financed project aimed at introducing modern irrigation technological packages, in a participatory manner, under all major existing farming systems, as a measure to enhance water savings and improve farm income.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Malta Water Resources Review 2006
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    The state of Malta’s water resources is poor. With the support of FAO, the Malta Resources Authority has been undertaking studies and consultations to articulate a national water policy and formulate a set of workable regulations. The rationale behind this process is that involving stakeholders will lead to a policy that is socially and politically acceptable and geared to tackling the complex water-related challenges facing the country. In addition, it is intended that the water polic y will ensure that Malta is in compliance with the European Union Water Framework Directive. This directive requires Malta to achieve the status of “good” by 2010. As part of the policy formulation process, a water resources review was conducted to: (i) assess the current status of water resources; (ii) evaluate the demand trends of different sectors; (iii) provide information; and (iv) identify opportunities for improving the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water resource m anagement. This review shows that, although the demand for groundwater is outstripping supply, there is scope to reverse current trends through demand management, supply augmentation and strategic protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater quality can be protected and the mean sea-level aquifer stabilized. Policies and practices to do this need to be based on accurate information and acceptance that solutions must be applicable in the long-term. As such, political consensus and cross-party support is vital. This review provides the basis for that consensus. Malta’s core water challenge is one of water governance.

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