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Voluntary guide for national seed policy formulation











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    Booklet
    A strategy for coordinated development of the seed sector in countries of the Economic Cooperation Organization region 2020
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    The document was prepared by FAO and the Secretariat of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) in the framework of the project GCP/INT/123/MUL: Seed Sector Development in Countries of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) funded by the FAO-Turkey Partnership Programme. The document was prepared in order to facilitate regional trade and promote the development of the seed sector in member countries of the ECO region. It was prepared after extensive consultation among senior representatives of the member countries who freely contributed their experience and opinions in a series of national and regional meetings. Although this strategy was tailored to the needs of the ECO region, the same basic principles and objectives will apply to similar initiatives in other geographical areas. A few minor changes have been made in the text of this document to remove points that are specific to the region or are relevant only to members of ECO. Besides promoting the harmonization of seed regulations, this document also provides guidance on the topics that would be included in a national seed policy and the overall development of the seed sector in line with such a policy. With this in mind, FAO has decided to publish this strategy so that others can benefit from the work that was done for the ECO region, as summarized in the foreword. The key assumption of the strategy is that harmonizing seed regulations is a very desirable goal but progress is slow because of the need for each government to make changes to its own laws and policies. The priorities and procedures for doing those things will vary between individual countries. However, if there is broad agreement on the principles set out in this document, then countries can move in the same direction and gradually eliminate obstacles to the free movement of seeds and varieties across borders. The overall process should be one of convergence. The member countries of the Economic Cooperation Organisation are listed below: The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan The Republic of Azerbaijan The Islamic Republic of Iran The Republic of Kazakhstan The Kyrgyz Republic The Islamic Republic of Pakistan The Republic of Tajikistan The Republic of Turkmenistan The Republic of Turkey The Republic of Uzbekistan
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Promoting the Growth and Development of Smallholder Seed Enterprises for Food Security Crops
    Case studies from Brazil, Côte d’Ivoire and India
    2010
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    Farmers everywhere depend on access to good quality seed, which is fundamental to their crop production systems. Most governments have made significant investments in strengthening national agricultural production capacities, yet farmers in developing countries still face difficulties in accessing the quality seed of the varieties that they require. Guaranteeing farmers’ access to quality seed can only be achieved through a viable seed supply system that can multiply and distribute see ds which have been produced or preserved. This is better achieved by the private sector, but medium- to large-scale international seed companies concentrate on high-value crops and avoid dealing in the self-pollinating, open-pollinating and vegetatively-propagated varieties on which most smallholder farmers depend for their food security as the biology of these crops makes it easy for farmers to keep their seeds for several seasons. However, smallholders are often seen as the driving force of economic growth, poverty reduction and food security. This is also true for smallholder seed enterprises which, in the absence of large companies, provide a valid alternative for the production and distribution of food security crops. This paper reviews case studies on smallholder seed enterprises in Brazil, Côte d’Ivoire and India, as well as relevant world literature in order to identify key issues that facilitate or constrain the development of the seed sector. The final section provides some guidelines on policy design and implementation to promote the development of sustainable seed enterprises at different stages in the evolution of national seed sectors. It provides examples of good practices and hence seeks to assist governments in identifying ways in which they can support the development of smallholder seed enterprises that will provide the most appropriate varieties to smallholder farmers in their efforts to boost food production.
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    Document
    Seed Industry Privatization - Strengthening National Seed Production Capacity in Afghanistan
    Proceedings of a workshop on Seed Industry Privatization, 6-8 December 2004, Kabul, Afghanistan
    2006
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    Efforts to create an organized seed industry in Afghanistan began with the establishment in 1978 of the Afghan Seed Company (ASC) as a Government Joint Stock Company for the production, processing, quality control, distribution and sale of quality seed. The ASC later became known as the Improved Seed Enterprise (ISE). It established Headquarters in Kabul and sub-offices in various provinces. However, not much was achieved before the conflict broke out in 1979.

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