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Forest and human health with special reference to India

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Revisiting leaf microstructural and physical properties for high-efficiency depositional niches of particulate matters
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Current problems and potential solutions to reduce suspended particulate matter (PM) are enormous scientific challenges. Indeed, reducing the vehicle or industrial-driven PM particles still need a guide to discerning an economically viable solution for highly urbanized areas. Therefore, a better understanding of PM capture processes and pathways from both leaf surfaces and waxes would allow for the development of long-term air purification potential and efficiency in the improvement of urban greenspace. Functional traits as biofiltration for airborne PM particle control were calculated using the following species of Aesculus turbinata, Chionanthus retusus, Ginkgo biloba, Liriodendron tulipifera, Magnolia denudata, Styphnolobium japonicum, Taxus cuspidata, Buxus koreana, Euonymus japonicus, and Rhododendron schlippenbachii. Variation in PM adsorption amounts per unit area could be related to the difference in air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, tree canopy, and adaxial/abaxial leaf surfaces. Leaf micromorphological traits among tree and shrub species were related to PM adsorption; however, the leaf accumulation-PM removal efficiency could be generated through a collaboration of leaf hydrophobic nature and complex surface microstructures such as trichomes. Furthermore, PM retention capacities of leaf surfaces as the main depositional niches for PM particles can be a very important indicator as a valid means to enhance long-term sustainability of context-specific vegetation barriers for urban air pollution abatement. In conclusion, these findings will provide a reference for urban planning and design and can help to develop the improvement of future urban greenspace based on local conditions. Acknowledgments: This study was carried out with the support of ‘A Study on Mechanism and Function Improvement of Plants for Reducing Air Pollutants’ (Grant No. FE0000-2018-01-2020) from National Institute of Forest Science (NIFoS), Republic of Korea. Keywords: Sustainable forest management, Human health and well-being, Adaptive and integrated management, Biodiversity conservation, Climate change ID: 3486769
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    Utilization of Tribal Ethnobotanicals for control of mosquito and mosquito borne diseases and Covid herbal mask and sanitizer for the livelihood ofIrular tribes Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India 2022
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    The Irular are a Dravidian ethnic group inhabiting the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and they are facing many problems with mosquitoes, which are transmitting Malaria, dengue and filariasis etc. The tribal (Irular) plants, Phyllanthus emblica and Artemisia pallens from Western Ghats, Tamilnadu, India have been used the preparation of mosquito control agents. An effective mosquito larvicide and bio-mosquito coil has been prepared by use of above herbals to establish a powerful knockdown effect against larvae and adult mosquitoes, when compared with marketed synthetic products. A Mosquito coil (0.6 cm thickness) was prepared manually and shade dried and it has been demonstrated to tribal people. In laboratory conditions, the herbal formulations were found to possess toxicity against young instars (I, II, III, and IV) dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Field trials have been conducted at the breeding sites of mosquitoes at stagnant water bodies and insect pests at the Agricultural forest ecosystem at tribal settlement at Nilgiris and Maruthamalai Hills. Bioassays have also been conducted against non-target organisms such as copepods, Mesocyclops aspericornis, Guppy fish, Poecilia reticulata and earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae species. Herbal masks (covid-19) were prepared by infusion of herbal extract through Ayurvastra technique, and it has been demonstrated to the tribal community for their use for the mosquito repellent and as Covid facial masks. Less alcoholic and special herbal covid mask spray have also been made with herbals (neem, ginger, clove, turmeric, tulsi). The nanoformulations of herbal extract showed a potent antiplasmodial activities against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Anti Dengue with moderate cytotoxicity was detected on Vero cells post-treatment. Formulations were tested for antimicrobial activities and it can be used as eco-friendly bioinsecticides and alternate herbal medicine for tribals. Keywords: Human Health and Well-being, Innovation, Adaptive and Integrated Management, Social Protection, Zoonotic diseases ID: 3644418
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    Taxonomic value of leaf epidermal markers in discriminating medicinal tree species of Apocynaceae Juss in Nigeria 2022
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    Apocynaceae is a useful family comprising of trees notable for different medicinal remedies. Consequent to their importance vis-à-vis scarcity in the forest, they are being sold in various Nigerian markets by herb sellers mostly in sterile and fragmentary forms. Hence, the medicinal plants are subjected to adulteration and substitution. Identification of the plants by users is done via floristic markers, which are not readily available for such purpose. It becomes pertinent to carry out the taxonomic revision of these trees to provide additional markers that will contribute to their effective identification for correct use. Various documentations have been made on members of apocynaceae and are properly placed on their respective taxa using epidermal traits. However, such information is scarce for Alstonia boonei, Holarrhena floribunda, Rauvolfia vomitoria, Thevetia nerifolia and Vocanga africana. This study therefore aimed at providing epidermal taxonomic markers that could be employed in delimiting the species as an alternative when the fruit or floral parts are wanting. Leaf epidermises of five species of apocynaceae representing 5 genera were studied under a biological microscope with a camera attachment. Data obtained were statistically analyzed. The epidermal cell was penta or hexagonal in A. boonei and V. africana. The stomatal length varied from 20.88 µm (R. vomitoria) to 25.92 µm (T. nerifolia) and 18.96 µm (R. vomitoria) to 29.28 µm (V. africana) on the abaxial and adaxial layers respectively. All the epidermal characters on the adaxial layer were significantly different (p<0.05) among the species. Anticlinal walls were sinuated in H. floribunda and T. nerifolia while in R. vomitoria, it was straight to wavy. V. africana and A. boonei anticlinal walls were straight. This study represents the first account of epidermal characterization of the members of apocynaceae in Nigeria and is of taxonomic importance in setting boundaries among the species. Keywords: Human health and well-being, Biodiversity conservation, Genetic resources ID: 3486776

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