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Right to Food and Gender

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    Document
    Women and Land in the Muslim World
    Pathways to increase access to land for the realization of development, peace and human rights
    2018
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    Women’s access to land is crucial to ensure social and economic development and food security; it contributes to the realization of human rights, empowerment and participation of women; it helps to protect women from violence and health hazards, and it enables them to play a bigger role in the stabilization of societies in crisis and conflict. For women, access to land means security, stability, independence and freedom. Unfortunately, socially prescribed gender roles, unequal power dynamics at household and community level, discriminatory family practices, unequal access to justice, institutions and land administration processes, traditional norms and local tenure relationships frequently deny women adequate access to land for farming, housing, or other social and economic purposes. Such challenges are faced by women in the Muslim world as well as in other parts of the world. However, 20 per cent of the world’s population is Muslim and - despite the significant national differences encountered - certain common land-related patterns reflecting customary and religious practices emerge in the Muslim world as elements that shape the way women can access to, use of and control over land. This report looks at global normative work, regional frameworks, and good countrylevel practices, it provides an analysis of the most important aspects to be taken into consideration to successfully secure women’s access to land in the Muslim world and makes a set of evidence-based and context specific recommendations for action. The report builds on key concepts, tools and approaches developed in the past decade by the Global Land Tool Network, such as the continuum of land rights, the fit-for-purpose land administration, the appreciation of the diversity of women, and the engagement with aspects of Islamic land law for the protection of the land rights of women and of the most vulnerable. The ideas and recommendations suggested here are intended to be used by wide range of policymakers, land practitioners, development and humanitarian workers, civil society, religious leaders, women’s organizations, communities and donors.
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    Book (series)
    Gender and land compendium of country studies 2005
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    From the outset, the development of agriculture has been strongly associated with women’s endeavour. In fact, women’s contribution to agriculture goes back to the origins of farming and the domestication of animals when the first human settlements were established more than 6 000 years ago. Over the years, the division of responsibilities and labour within households and communities tended to place farming and nutrition-related tasks under women’s domain. Nowadays, in many societies women continue to be mainly responsible for family food security and nutrition. Nevertheless, the institutional framework and policy environment have not necessarily evolved to respond to the goals of human and social reproduction; on the contrary, they have been subordinated to financial and profit-making goals. Gender, together with other social and economic factors, determines the individual’s and group’s access to and control over resources. Cultural norms and social practices, as well as socio-economic factors, are among the main obstacles women face in this regard. In practice, although most national legal codes have explicitly incorporated legal provisions acknowledging gender equality in relation to access and ownership of land and other productive resources, it has been noted that women’s rights to own resources on equal conditions to those of men are repeatedly disregarded or overlooked.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    The gender gap in land rights 2018
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    For rural women and men, land is often the most important household asset for supporting agricultural production and providing food security and nutrition. Evidence shows that secure land tenure is strongly associated with higher levels of investment and productivity in agriculture – and therefore with higher incomes and greater economic wellbeing. Secure land rights for women are often correlated with better outcomes for them and their families, including greater bargaining power at household and community levels, better child nutrition and lower levels of gender-based violence. However, in many parts of the world both men and women have inadequate access to secure rights over land. Women are particularly disadvantaged in this regard. Reliable, sex-disaggregated data on land is crucial for highlighting disparities in land rights between women and men; this enables us to improve policy formulation and to monitor progress towards gender equality in agriculture and land tenure. Although there are significant efforts underway to collect better and more relevant data on land rights, there is still a lack of understanding as to what data are available and needed, and what they can tell us about women’s land rights. This information brief highlights the key concepts around land rights, the various indicators that are needed to understand the gender gap, and the statistics available for each indicator. The brief also describes the issues surrounding the statistics, and offers potential policy responses for improving women’s land rights and the monitoring of those rights.

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