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Agrobiodiversity - a training manual for farmer groups in East Africa












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    Book (series)
    Final evaluation of the project “Mainstreaming the use and conservation of agrobiodiversity in public policy through integrated strategies and in situ implementation in four Andean Highlands provinces”
    Project code: GCP/ECU/086/GFF GEF ID: 4777
    2018
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    Ecuador has been recognized as one of the 17 megadiverse countries in the world. It present a great variety of native crops preserved thanks to traditional agricultural practices of indigenous communities. The GEF-funded project “Integrate the use and conservation of agro-biodiversity in public policies” sought to overcome the many threats affecting biodiversity while reducing rural poverty. The project contributed to enhance food security and the livelihoods of family farmers by supporting the sustainable use of local crops and developing short marketing circuits. The project also supported the integration of agrobiodiversity in the National Strategy for Biodiversity and in the Development and Land Management Plans at provincial level. It was instrumental to the formulation of the Agrobiodiversity and Seeds Law, the development of a database of 546 native seeds and to the establishment of Bio-knowledge and Agricultural Development Centers. Future projects should continue supporting national and local governments in regulating and implementing the Agrobiodiversity and Seeds Law, in establishing the National Agrarian Authority and creating a niche in the national and international market for native crops.
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    Aquaculture needs assessment mission report. Nairobi, Kenya
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2013
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    The Aquaculture Needs Assessment of Kenya was jointly organized by the Government of Kenya and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), under the framework of the project GCP/RAF/466/EC “Implementation of a Regional Fisheries Strategy for the Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean Region”, otherwise known as SmartFish. SmartFish is funded by the European Union (EU) through the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) and co-implemented by the FAO. The needs assessment is one of the activities being implemented under Result 5M3.1 Sustainable Aquaculture Development Promotion, which responds to African countries’ desire to contribute their efforts to transform aquaculture from a non-viable, subsistence and public sector driven economy, to a resourceful, vibrant, private sector led sustainable enterprise. The needs assessment was carried out at specific sites in the western part of the country. The study involved: a desk review for the purpose of having background inf ormation about the sector; the site selection of study areas for the mission; the development of assessment tools and approach, ensuring FAO approval for their use; the execution of field assessments in the selected sites; and the production of this report. This report outlines the training needs and a training delivery plan; legal registration and networking recommendations; input requirements; as well as a distribution plan and costing. The desk review was done in the last week of June 2013. A field mission in Western Kenya was conducted over three weeks in August 2013. Report writing took three weeks in September 2013. The report was submitted in the third week of October 2013. Training of fish farmer groups, and provision of equipment and inputs to these groups, is scheduled for January and February 2014. This needs assessment focused on training and inputs, such as equipment and materials that are required by fish farmer groups. The assessment took place with fish farmer groups in Kisii, Kakamega, Homa Bay, Vihiga, Siaya, and Busia counties in Western Kenya. The training modules identified include: Best Management Practices (BMPs); group cohesion and development; aqua-business skills; marketing; record and book keeping; and efficient production technologies. Equipment needs include: deep freezers; sampling and harvesting nets; secchi disks; cool boxes; harvesting baskets; hapa nets; and weighing scales. From the study it is anticipated that the end point of the selected beneficiary clusters should be stand-alone, self-sufficient market structures that offer investors the best prices for inputs and products. It is also anticipated that once this end point is reached, the fish farm clusters should serve as the nuclei in an effort to expand market clusters to other small and medium enterprise investors across the country, and the region at large. The purpose was to assess the needs for aquaculture production and marketing in selected fish farmer organizations, so as to guide the support and investment choices for enhancement for sustainable aquaculture productivity and profitability in Western Kenya.  5 Recommendations include the following:  The groups to benefit from capacity building and provision of equipment include: Central Kakamega Aquaculture Cooperative; Muungano Fish Farmers (Bidii Fish Farmers and Yala Fish Farmers Cluster); Tilapia Fish Farmers Group; Wangchieng Fish Farmers Cluster; and the Butula Fish Farmers Cooperative;  The groups s hould be strengthened through training on group cohesion and market linkages;  Documentation of the work in the form of a video documentary should be undertaken to serve as a training tool. The aim is to develop long-term market linkages that optimize profits for group members.
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    Negotiated territorial development in a multi-stakeholders participatory Resource Planning approach: an initial sustainable framework for the Near east Region 2016
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    Throughout the Near East, land and water shortages, land degradation, out of date land tenure systems and food insecurity are compounded by asymmetries in gender roles and power, by severe imbalances in the political-military structures within and between countries, by flagrant deficiencies in land and water management and control systems, and by the incessant increases in demand driven by high rates of population growth and urbanization. This interplay of forces and dynamics form a complex hydr o socio-political web that governs the allocation land and water and who benefits from their availability and their ultimate sustainability. The current allocation arrangements of the region's three major river basins - the Nile, the Euphrates-Tigris and the Jordan - are nascent sources of tension, and potential sources of conflict and violence. Political instability that characterizes the Near East continues to intensify scarcity, suppresses growth and engenders poverty and is being increasingl y exacerbated by the impending consequences of climate change. The Middle East is one of the most water poor and water stressed regions of the globe. While the region is home to 5.1% of the people of the world, it has about only 1% of the world renewable fresh water. Today's annual per capita availability of fresh water in the region is only one seventh of its 1960 level, falling from 3,300 cubic metres per person in 1960 to less than 500 cubic metres in 2015. This is the lowest per capita wat er availability in the world. The current land tenure systems are failing to address long-standing problems that include smallholder farmers, landless households and most marginalized groups such as women continue to compete for shrinking natural recourses, while pastoralists are losing control of their traditional grazing areas. Use, management and access to land and water are becoming extremely sensitive matters as the number of users grows. Governments and local actors have often perceived these major issues differently. This requires effort to be made to ensure a participatory approach to decision-making that effectively involves all the local actors concerned in an equitable and balanced manner. About 90% of the land area in this Region is subject to land degradation in different forms and over 45% of land suitable to farming is exposed to various types of land degradation which include soil nutrient depletion, salinity and wind and water erosion. Per capita arable land availa bility in the region is among the lowest in the world where many countries in the region show levels that are exceptionally low (on average less than 0.123 hectares per person) and the range varies between 0.01 hectares per person (Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Kuwait and Bahrain) to 0.34 hectares in the Sudan in 2015. Arable land as a percentage of land area in the region is very low ranging between 0.1% in Oman to 18.4% in Tunisia in 2013. Most of the countries in the region show shares below 10%. O nly Morocco, Tunisia, and Iraq sow percentages above 10%. Irrigated land areas in the region also represent a small share of total arable land areas. In many of the countries in the region these shares are way below the world average. Only Iran (17.4%) and the UAE (12.5%) show high relative shares in the period 2011-2015. The Region’s critical shortage of water and cultivable land, including the increasing pressure on these resources and their degradation makes their efficient management a pa ramount task. It will be necessary in this regard to promote the engagement of all concerned stakeholders in planning and managing land, water and agrobiodiversity. Actual physical scarcity of land and water, even in the Middle East region, is not the only key issue. Conditions of economic scarcity seem to be equally pressing; there is perhaps enough land and water to meet society's need, but there are few incentives for wise, efficient and egalitarian use of these critical resources. Climate change will impinge on this region’s fragile water balances, suitable land for cultivation, grazing land and food production capacities and will exacerbate the problems and issues of food security. Measures, policies, strategies and institutional capacities to mitigate the impending catastrophic consequences of climate change and to improve the societies’ resilience and adaptation to its consequences are needed now. The sooner the regulatory and institutional setups are put in place the easier the task to deal with climate and other risks. It is necessary and vital to rise up to this challenge by enlisting the stakeholders in the initiatives to promote sustainability and efficiency of land and water use and the management of food security issues. An active engagement of concerned stakeholders in planning and managing water, land and agrobiodiversity necessitates first and foremost the engagement of and participation of particularly women and girls and marginalized groups in all wate r and food aspects as they constitute the main agricultural labour force and the most deprived segments of society. Gender and the water and land nexus in the Arab region is an area where there is still relative little information. There is little systematic knowledge about the many means by which women and men manage water and land in the region. Evidence shows that while women in Egypt have a significant role to play in water use in the process of food production by controlling and managi ng water flows in the fields and supervising workers during irrigation, they rarely own the land they cultivate. Rural women in Yemen spend huge amounts of time collecting and transporting water, often up and down steep slopes and coordinate water allocation and distribution for the various needs of the family and the household but they are rarely involved in decision making and management councils that govern land and water uses. Women everywhere in the Middle East evaluate water quantity and q uality and prioritize water for drinking and health and sanitation purposes but they rarely share equally in the benefits of their labor or in the ownership of the land and water resources. This is why an integrated water and land management system anchored on a genuine participation of stakeholders will be crucial in determining whether the Arab world achieves the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and aspirations for reducing poverty and enhancing shared prosperity. Water and land are the c ommon currency which links nearly every SDG, and it will be a critical determinant of success. Abundant water supplies and cultivable land are vital for the production of food and will be essential to attaining SDG 2 on food security; clean and safe drinking water and sanitation systems are necessary for health as called for in SDGs 3 and 6; and water is needed for powering industries and creating the new jobs identified in SDGs 7 and 8. None of this is achievable without adequate and safe water and sufficient suitable land to nourish the planet’s life-sustaining ecosystem services identified in SDGs 13, 14 and 15.

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