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The Russian Federation: review of the dairy sector

FAO Investment Centre. Country Highlights (FAO), no. 2










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    The inland fisheries of the Russian Federation: their current status for food provision and employment 2024
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    The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world occupying one-third of Eurasia and it has enormous water resources. Fish from inland waters has always been a central part of the Russian diet and a major contributor to national food security. Inland fisheries are highly diversified and provide employment to 40 500 fishers in industrial fisheries. In addition an estimated 2.4 million amateur and recreational fishers and around 150 000 Indigenous Peoples fish for subsistence and small-scale trade. Historic production figures surpassed 500 000 tonnes of fish from Russian inland fisheries, but have declined over the last 40 years, and current official catches are around 270 000 tonnes. However, unrecorded catches by recreational/amateur fishers add up to an estimated 100 000 tonnes annually, and subsistence catches by Indigenous Peoples probably add another 67 000 tonnes; and finally, illegal catches may add another 50 000 tonnes, suggesting that total landings are not far from what was caught in the past. The Russian Federation has invested significant resources and efforts into developing and managing inland fisheries and aquaculture. The review presents the current management structure and summarizes the comprehensive legislation governing inland fisheries, including the agreements with neighbouring countries sharing some of the major waterbodies or rivers.
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    Document
    Russian Federation Sugar sector review
    FAO Investment Centre. Country Highlights.
    2014
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    The Russian Federation’s sugar industry has expanded output dramatically over the past ten years. As a result, the country has steadily reduced its reliance on imports. The stimulus for this expansion can be traced back to privatization of farms and factories in the early 1990s. However, sector development started only after the government has implemented the current system of variable import duties to protect local producers from volatile world market prices starting 2004. High domestic sugar prices accelerated investment and the expansion of the sector in the Russian Federation, as local beet prices increased by more than those of alternative arable crops. With these foundations in place, the industry has been willing to invest heavily to develop the sector further, with these investments having been focussed in two areas in particular: (i) consolidation and modernization of the beet processing sector and (ii) intensify beet production and secure greater raw material supplies for their factories.
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    Journal, magazine, bulletin
    Dairy Market Review - Overview of global dairy market developments in 2018
    mrt/19
    2019
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    Global milk output in 2018 is estimated at 842 million tonnes, an increase of 2.2 percent from 2017, driven by production expansions in India, Turkey, the EU, Pakistan, the United States and Argentina, but partially offset by declines in China and Ukraine, among few others. This increase has come about as a result of higher dairy herd numbers along with improvements to milk collection processes (India and Pakistan), efficiency improvements in integrated dairy production systems (Turkey), increased yield per cow (the EU and the United States) and enhanced utilization of idle capacity and higher demand from the processing sector and imports (Argentina). Milk output declines largely stemmed from industrial restructuring processes and downscaling of small-scale farms (China) and reduced producer margins and farm gate prices (Ukraine). Across the regions, Asia registered the highest milk output expansion by volume in 2018, followed Europe, North America. Milk output expanded in all other regions too, but by smaller volumes. World exports of dairy products expanded to 75 million tonnes (in milk equivalents), an increase of 2.1 million tonnes, or 2.9 percent from 2017, principally coming from the United States and Argentina, but also India, Uruguay, and Mexico. By contrast, exports declined in a number of countries, in particular in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Across the main dairy products, in 2018, SMP registered the highest export expansion (+8.6 percent), followed by butter (+7.5 percent), WMP (+1.7 percent) and cheese (+0.8 percent). As for milk powders, consisting of SMP and WMP, export availabilities were abundant from almost all major international suppliers. Large stocks of SMP, held by the EU, the United States and India, also contributed to elevate global supply availabilities. EU SMP stocks, given their age, were mostly considered less suitable for human consumption. In addition to immediate human consumption in the form of milk, powders were also in high demand from food processors and manufacturers, boosting import demand from some countries such as Mexico. Although butter exports for the whole year expanded, supplies were relatively limited in the first six months. Global supplies rose only when supplies from Oceania began entering the global markets, starting from about July, when its milk production season was in full swing. Butter import demand nevertheless was robust, especially from Asia, as urbanization, rising income and changing food habits made butter demand less price sensitive. Cheese exports expanded at a slower pace in 2018, compared to that of 2017, reflecting import cutbacks of many importers, including Australia and the United States. A robust market, however, existed for high value cheese products, boosted by rising consumer demand for specialized cheese varieties, also with geographic labelling. International dairy prices in 2018, measured by the FAO Dairy Price Index, declined by 4.6 percent compared to that of 2017, reflecting declines in prices of all dairy products represented in the Index, with the highest fall registered for SMP (-5.6 percent), followed by cheese (-5.2 percent), butter (- 4.4 percent) and WMP (-2.9 percent). The global supply-demand balances of each commodity, induced by factors discussed above, are compatible with these price movements. An additional factor that is noteworthy of mentioning on international dairy prices was the significant differentials that existed between the EU and Oceania on butter, WMP and SMP prices. Prices for butter and WMP in the EU hovered at higher levels than for Oceania, and that prices of SMP from Oceania were higher than those from the EU. Market segmentation, associated consumer preferences, reflecting geographical proximity to markets, was thought to be behind the observed price differentials across the two regions.

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