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Promoting alternatives to migration for rural youth in Tunisia and Ethiopia

Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction (RYM) project










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    Project
    Promoting alternatives to migration for rural youth in Ethiopia and Tunisia - GCP/INT/240/ITA 2019
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    Poverty, food insecurity and a lack of employment opportunities drive many young men and women around the world to search for jobs elsewhere. In Africa, where youth underemployment and unemployment rates are particularly high, many young people move away from rural areas, also because they do not perceive agriculture as an attractive and remunerative sector. The project aimed to address the adverse drivers of migration in two target countries, Tunisia and Ethiopia, which are particularly prone to rural outmigration of youth, while at the same time harnessing the development potential of migratory movements. In particular, the project focused on the promotion of innovative mechanisms to create job and entrepreneurial opportunities in rural areas. It also filled evidence gaps on the determinants and impacts of rural migration and promoted better policy integration between migration, agriculture and rural development.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Rural migration in Tunisia
    Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia
    2018
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    The RuMiT (Rural Migration in Tunisia) research addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods and societies in origin regions in Tunisia. The research used a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comparative insights into: international and internal migrants and non-migrants; pre- and post-2011 migrants; households with and without migrants. Main results show that migrants from rural areas are increasingly highly educated and leaving to pursue their studies abroad. This particularly applies to women, who also register a decrease in marriage-related migration. Migration proves to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants, in terms of occupational and social security outcomes. In particular, migrant women have higher labour market participation and employment rates than non-migrants. As a direct consequence of an emigration which is still male dominated, households with migrants are increasingly feminized, i.e. with a higher share of women, who are more likely to be active compared with women in nonmigrant households. Migrant households were also found to have higher access to social security. While incomes from remittances tend not to be invested in productive activities, evidence shows that one internal migrant out of four and one international migrant out of three has an economic activity in the areas of origin, which in most of the cases is connected with agricultural or animal production. The Rural Migration in Tunisia (RuMiT) research project was undertaken in the framework of the FAO project “Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction: Fostering rural diversification through enhanced youth employment and better mobility” (GCP/INT/240/ITA) – in brief, the Rural Youth Migration (RYM) project – implemented in Tunisia and Ethiopia between 2015 and 2017, and funded by the Italian Development Cooperation.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Rural youth migration, social protection and sustainable value chains in Kenya 2018
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    Exploring the links between migration, agricultural and rural transformation processes is an area where FAO has a comparative advantage thanks to its strong technical expertise and close relationship with governments and relevant stakeholders. The project "Reducing distress migration through local value chain development", funded by the Italian Development Cooperation, aims to address the root causes of distress rural out-migration of youth, by creating employment and entrepreneurship opportunities along food value chains and strengthening linkages with existing social protection programmes.

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