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Mainstreaming Nutrition in National and Regional Trade Laws and Regulations of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Promoting Local Food Value Chains for Intra-Sids Trade - TCP/RAF/3707









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    Book (stand-alone)
    Trade policy technical notes
    Trade and Food Security: Trade and Nutrition Technical Note, No. 21 – January 2018
    2018
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    The triple burden of malnutrition, which consists of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight and obesity, continues to be a global cause for concern. In fact, dietary risks are among the leading factors contributing to early deaths. Which role can trade and trade policy play in achieving food and nutrition security? Trade can improve the availability and affordability of different foods as well as provide more choices for consumers and thus help diversify diets. At the same time, the rise of food trade is often associated with a greater availability of less healthy foods, including ultra-processed foods, which can be to the detriment of dietary quality. Myriad policies, including in agriculture and trade, affect the food system, its economic environment, prices, producers, processors and consumers. Trade policies can change the availability of and access to food and thus effect consumer choices and the ultimate composition of diets. To maximize the positive effects of increased trade for nutrition and to limit its adverse effects, trade reforms need to be complemented by targeted domestic policies designed to improve the nutritional status of the population, tailored to country specific needs. The combination of fiscal measures and public information campaigns, for example, could shift consumption in favour of healthier alternatives. The technical note explores the impact of trade on nutrition and the extent to which trade policies affect nutritional objectives. It also highlights critical knowledge gaps for evidence-based decision making.
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    Project
    Improving Diets and Nutrition Outcomes in Southern Africa - TCP/SFS/3604 2020
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    It is widely acknowledged that having a high-quality diet is one of the single most important contributors to nutrition outcomes and health, while poor-quality diets result in malnutrition in its many forms, including under-nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and obesity. In recent years, African countries have begun to undergo a dietary transition, marked by changes in food consumption patterns. Globalization, urbanization and changes in the food supply and lifestyles have resulted in a shift in dietary habits, a loss in dietary diversity and a loss of traditional food cultures. Shifts to sub-optimal diets are compounded by a lack of awareness of nutrition and a low level of empowerment to make healthy food choices. The general population has been exposed to mixed and misguided nutrition messages which, in turn, negatively influence their overall knowledge, outlook and behaviour towards making healthy food choices. These changes, coupled with the increased availability and marketing of products of low nutritional value, highlighted the need for consistent, simple and practical dietary guidance to enable people to make healthy food choices and therefore prevent negative health outcomes, and to assist countries in developing food, health and agriculture policy. The Sub-regional Office of Southern Africa (SFS) therefore implemented this project, TCP/SFS/3604, to support three countries (Seychelles, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia) in promoting healthy diets through the development of Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs). This TCP also supported the Government of Lesotho in the development of a Nutrition and Home Economics Strategy (NHES) for the Department of Nutrition and Home Economics (DoNHE) in the Ministry of Agriculture. The FBDGs are evidence-based recommendations with a series of harmonized nutrition messages and related illustrations that represent what a healthy diet is. The guidelines also provide advice on foods, food groups and dietary patterns to help the population meet nutrition requirements, so as to promote overall health and prevent diet-related non-communicable diseases. The FBDGs are intended to establish a basis for policies on food and nutrition, public health, and agriculture, as well as nutrition education programmes, in order to foster healthy eating habits and lifestyles.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Promoting Healthy Diets through Nutrition Education and Changes in the Food Environment: an International Review of Actions and their Effectiveness
    Background Paper for the International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2)
    2013
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    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), of the 57 million global deaths in 2008, 36 million, or 63%, were due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), principally ca rdiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and chronic respiratory diseases (WHO, 2011a). Nearly 80% of these deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. Deaths from NCDs are projected to continue to rise worldwide, with the greatest increases expected in low- and middle-income regions. An unhealthy diet i s one of the key risk factors for NCDs. For example, inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and several cancers; high salt consumption is an important determinant of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk and increases the risk of stomach cancer; high consumption of saturated fats and trans-fatty acids is linked to heart disease; a range of dietary factors have been linked with diabetes; red and processed meat consumption is linked with some cancers (WHO, 2003; Steyn et al., 2004; WCRF, 2007). In addition, excessive energy intake leads to overweight and obesity, which is linked with a range of health problems, including NCDs (WHO, 2000). Diabetes has particularly strong associations with obesity (Steyn et al., 2004), and evidence shows associations between body fatness and some leading cancers (WCRF, 2007). The WHO estimates that 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese (WHO, 2011a). The prevalence of overweight is highest in upper-middle-income countries but very high levels are also reported from some lower-middle income countries in Europe, the Middle East and the Americas, and it is reported to be rising throughout low- and middle-income countries.Since the FAO/WHO International Conference of Nutrition in 1992, unhealthy eating patterns have been increasing around the world. For example, fat intake has been rising rapidly in lower -middle-income countries since the 1980s (WHO, 2011a). Between 1992 and 2007, a disproportionate amount of the per capita increase in calorie availability1 came from sugar and meat (Mazzocchi et al., 2012). Patterns of eating have also changed, with an increase in snacking, skipping meals, eating meals out of a family setting, and eating out of the home.

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