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Shrimp infectious myonecrosis strategy manual












​Tang, K.F.J., Bondad-Reantaso, M.G. & Arthur, J.R. 2019. Shrimp infectious myonecrosis strategy manual. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1187. Rome, FAO.



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    Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease strategy manual 2020
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    The contents of this Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease strategy manual provides information and guidance relevant to the development of policies to respond to outbreaks of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in farmed marine shrimp. The etiologic agents for AHPND are virulent strains of bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related species, which harbor specific toxin genes. While these bacterial species are part of the normal microflora of the marine environment, they may cause substantial mortalities in whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) and giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) cultured in countries in Asia and the Americas. These strains of these Vibrio bacteria secrete a PirABvp binary toxin resulting in sloughing of tubule epithelial cells and dysfunctions of the hepatopancreas in the acute form; mortality can reach 100 percent in affected ponds. Chronic presentation of this disease involves secondary bacterial infection of hepatopancreas and running mortality over the culture cycle. Acute or chronic presentation would greatly depend on the culture conditions. This disease can be considered a toxicosis rather than an infection. Economic losses due to this disease have amounted to over USD 7 billion annually. Further outbreaks of AHPND, particularly in areas that are currently free of the disease, would be expected to experience similar devastating effects on local shrimp producers and the surrounding communities; and thus, there is an urgent need to develop a contingency plan to control and eradicate this disease. This manual includes information on: 1) the nature of AHPND: a brief review of current knowledge in disease etiology, susceptible species and global distribution; 2) diagnosis of disease: a description of gross clinical signs and laboratory methods; 3) prevention and treatment: farm management, the use and development of antibiotics, bacteriophages, probiotics, disease-tolerant shrimp, shrimp immunity and vaccination; 4) epidemiology: AHPND’s geographic distribution, genotype, persistence in the environment, reservoir hosts, modes of transmission, risk factors, and economic impacts; 5) principles of control and eradication: methods for containment, mitigation and eradication of AHPND, and trade and industry considerations; and 6) policy development and implementation: AHPND-specific objectives, options and strategies for eradication and control, education, capacity building, funding, and compensation.
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    A survey of national emergency preparedness and response (EPR) systems. FAO Project TCP/INT/3501: Strengthening biosecurity governance and capacities for dealing with the serious shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) disease 2018
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    As part of the FAO project Strengthening biosecurity governance and capacities for dealing with the serious shrimp infectious myonecrosis Strengthening biosecurity governance and capacities for dealing with the serious shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) disease, the FAO undertook a self-assessment questionnaire-based survey of the aquatic animal diseases emergency preparedness and response (EPR) systems of six participating countries, Brazil, Ecuador and Mexico (representing South/Central America) and China, Indonesia and Thailand (representing Asia), with a view to developing recommendations for improved performance. Current system strengths and weaknesses were identified by comparing each country’s EPR system elements against those elements needed for a comprehensive (ideal world) EPR system based on FAO and OIE publications (and the model used in Australia). The questionnaire covered three broad systems components: administration (e.g. resource allocation and legislation), operational components (including early warning, early detection and early response systems) and operational support systems (such as information management and communications systems). The questionnaire was structured into four sections: (1) general administration, (2) operational components, (3) support systems and (4) additional information. Section 1 (General Administration) contained questions aimed at generating information on the administrative structure and the scope of responsibilities of the Competent Authority on various elements (e.g. communication, risk analysis, contingency plan, personnel skills, etc.) that are essential when dealing with an aquatic emergency response. Section 2 (Aquatic EPR System Elements) contained questions on the priority system elements identified by the OIE; namely, early warning, early response and early detection systems. Section 3 (Support Systems) contained questions about broader supporting systems in relation to legislation, information management, communications and resourcing. Section 4 (Additional information) presented an opportunity for countries to provide any information or raise issues not adequately addressed in the questionnaire. The self-assessment survey provided insight into each country’s capabilities in terms of policies, procedures and institutional capabilities in place to detect the incursion of an emergency aquatic animal disease and to respond to that incursion by containing or eradicating the disease. Six key areas of need where EPR systems were not well developed included the following: stakeholder consultation, systems audit/review, simulation exercises, education/awareness building, documentation and dedicated resourcing. Analysis of the survey responses form the basis of 20 recommendations aimed at improving the administration and operation of national EPR systems with respect to early warning, early detection and early response to emergency aquatic animal disease incursions.  
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    Introductions and movement of two penaeid shrimp species in Asia and the Pacific 2005
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    Both Penaeus vannamei1 and P. stylirostris are introduced species in Asia and the Pacific. They have now become important commercial shrimp species in many countries in Asia. The main reason behind the importation of P. vannamei to Asia has been the perceived poor performance, slow growth rate and disease susceptibility of the major indigenous cultured shrimp species, P. chinensis in China and P. monodon virtually everywhere else. However, for many reasons, particularly with the evidence of the introduction of exotic viruses to the region, there has been caution on the part of many Asian governments for the introduction of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris. Nevertheless, this caution has not been demonstrated by the private sector, which has been bringing stocks of illegal and often disease carrying P. vannamei into Asia from many locations, as well as moving infected stocks within Asia. The commercial success of these introductions, despite disease problems, has allowed the development of substantial culture industries for these alien penaeids within Asia, particularly in China and Thailand. One effect of this is that it is rapidly becoming difficult to control the importation and development of this new industry. This report attempts to gather all of the currently available data on the extent of P. vannamei and P. stylirostris importation and culture in Asia, its potential problems and benefits, and in this way to serve as a source document from which to investigate further m eans by which control over this issue might be re-established. Recommendations aimed at controlling the importation, testing and culture of these species have been made for all levels and are included in this report.

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