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Guidance on weed issues and assessment of noxious weeds in a context of harmonized legislation for production of certified seed








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    Book (stand-alone)
    Promoting the Growth and Development of Smallholder Seed Enterprises for Food Security Crops
    Case studies from Brazil, Côte d’Ivoire and India
    2010
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    Farmers everywhere depend on access to good quality seed, which is fundamental to their crop production systems. Most governments have made significant investments in strengthening national agricultural production capacities, yet farmers in developing countries still face difficulties in accessing the quality seed of the varieties that they require. Guaranteeing farmers’ access to quality seed can only be achieved through a viable seed supply system that can multiply and distribute see ds which have been produced or preserved. This is better achieved by the private sector, but medium- to large-scale international seed companies concentrate on high-value crops and avoid dealing in the self-pollinating, open-pollinating and vegetatively-propagated varieties on which most smallholder farmers depend for their food security as the biology of these crops makes it easy for farmers to keep their seeds for several seasons. However, smallholders are often seen as the driving force of economic growth, poverty reduction and food security. This is also true for smallholder seed enterprises which, in the absence of large companies, provide a valid alternative for the production and distribution of food security crops. This paper reviews case studies on smallholder seed enterprises in Brazil, Côte d’Ivoire and India, as well as relevant world literature in order to identify key issues that facilitate or constrain the development of the seed sector. The final section provides some guidelines on policy design and implementation to promote the development of sustainable seed enterprises at different stages in the evolution of national seed sectors. It provides examples of good practices and hence seeks to assist governments in identifying ways in which they can support the development of smallholder seed enterprises that will provide the most appropriate varieties to smallholder farmers in their efforts to boost food production.
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    Mainstreaming efficient legume seed systems in Eastern Africa
    Challenges, opportunities and contributions towards improved livelihoods
    2018
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    Legumes are important components of sustainable farming systems. They are useful to diversify and intensify cropping systems; fix atmospheric nitrogen and improve soil health; act as rotation crops; increase and diversify smallholder incomes and low carbon footprint, mitigating climate change. Legumes can therefore play a critical role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. However, legume production is challenged by several policy, regulatory, institutional and technical factors, including lack of attention from the public sector and limited opportunity to attract private sector investment. Significant investments have been made to address these challenges and a substantial number of improved varieties developed/released. The weak legume seed sector has been identified as one of the key constraints limiting the availability of and access to high-quality seed of improved varieties, thereby hindering adoption. Institutional and technical innovations to disseminate legume crop technologies have shown promise. Areas of action for an effective integrated seed system could include i) increasing total seed production and availability; ii) increasing access to high-quality seed of improved varieties; iii) creating demand for quality seed; iv) reaching farmers ‘at last mile’; and v) lowering costs of seed. The basic principles required to mainstream legume seed systems include, but are not limited to, a closer look at the legume seed delivery theory of change; a strong and enabling policy and regulatory environment; a strong institutional framework; innovative approaches for early-generation seed supply and commercial seed producers; multi-stakeholder involvement; and linkage to grain markets and utilization.
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    Promotion of sustainable commercial aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Volume 1. Policy framework. 2001
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    This document examines policies that encourage sustainable commercial aquaculture in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Commercial aquaculture, the rearing of aquatic organisms with the goal of maximizing profit, can contribute to food security and alleviation of hunger, directly by producing food fish and indirectly by generating income for the purchase of food, government revenues, improving a country's balance of trade as an export or as an import substitute, stimulating technological advances, bolstering the development of isolated regions and since it depends on private rather than public funds and is likely to use resources adequately, it is sustainable. However, some forms of commercial aquaculture can cause environmental damage and social conflicts. Stabilisation or decline of the capture fisheries, growing shortage of fish for domestic markets, export opportunities, suitable land and water and cheap labour offer prospects for commercial aquaculture in sub- Saharan Africa. Limited access to credit, shortages and high cost of feed, lack of good quality seed, and a low flow of capital investment hamper its development. Good governance, openness to trade, macroeconomic growth policies, emphasis on private investment as a source of wealth, land security, tax exemptions and holidays, loan guarantees, debt-equity swaps, promotion of large farms, producer associations, strategic planning and transparent regulatory procedures can stimulate the development of the sector.

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