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Guidelines for antimicrobial use in poultry and livestock sectors in Egypt








Hegazy, Y.M. and Oreiby, A.F. 2024. Guidelines for antimicrobial use in poultry and livestock sectors in Egypt. Cairo, FAO.




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    Antimicrobials are widely used in both humans and livestock and have greatly contributed to better human and animal health. However, these benefits are being threatened by the global emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Because humans and animals often share the same bacteria and may be treated with the same types of antibacterial drugs, resistance to antibiotics is the most critical aspect of AMR for the livestock sector. One way to mitigate the emergence of AMR is to reduce the overall use of antibiotics by combining prudent and medically rational use with other disease preventive measures. This manual will contribute to addressing the challenge of AMR by promoting the prevention of infections and the prudent use of antibiotics in the pig and poultry sectors, the livestock sectors that generally have the highest use of antibiotics. It should be regarded as a practical complement to national governance and regulatory measures. The manual is intended to assist pharmacists, veterinarians, other animal health workers, farm owners and their staff in using antibiotics in a prudent and medically efficient way without loss in productivity. It is especially targeted to farmers with commercialized medium- or large-scale production, veterinarians and other animal health personnel in non-EU Eastern European and Balkan countries, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, who are dealing with pigs and poultry. However, in many cases the principles and practices described here are universally useful and may be applied elsewhere.
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    Africa Regional Strategy on Antimicrobial Resistance Communications and Advocacy 2022
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    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when germs, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to antimicrobials – antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitic agents – making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death. Antimicrobial resistant germs are found in people, animals, food, plants and the environment (in water, soil and air). They can spread from person to person or between people and animals,including from food of animal origin. While AMR occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes, the main drivers of AMR include the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in human health and agriculture; lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals; poor infection and disease prevention and control in healthcare facilities and farms; poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics; lack of awareness and knowledge; and weak enforcement of legislation. Minimizing the emergence and spread of AMR requires a coordinated, focused multisectoral and multinational effort. The Africa Regional Strategy on Antimicrobial Resistance Communications and Advocacy was developed to serve as a guide for African countries to improve awareness of AMR and its consequences in Africa, to promote careful use of antimicrobials among key stakeholders, and to support countries to communicate on AMR in a consistent manner.
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    Antimicrobials (AM) play a critical role in the treatment of human and animal (aquatic and terrestrial) diseases, which has led to their widespread application and use. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, viruses and some parasites) to stop an antibiotic, such as an antimicrobial, antiviral or antimalarial, from working against them. Globally, about 700 000 deaths per year arise from resistant infections as a result of the fact that antimicrobial drugs have become less effective at killing resistant pathogens. Antimicrobial chemicals that are present in environmental compartments can trigger the development of AMR. These chemicals can also cause antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) to further spread antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) because they may have an evolutionary advantage over non-resistant bacteria. This paper will provide alternative screening methods useful for environmental samples and surveillance approaches in planning such screening efforts. Based on case studies, this paper aims to summarize the current understanding of the occurrence of ARG in the environment, and the antimicrobial movement from agricultural areas to the environment.

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