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Hydrological drought risk evaluation in context of climate-resilient water regulation, conservation and restoration of hydrographic basin biomes of Brazil

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Payments for environmental services integrated with the protection of biodiversity, water production and agroecology in the Paraíba Valley, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Nature's contribution to society is fundamental and people who contribute to its protection should be paid for that. This encourages farmers to engage in an ongoing process to transform land use into A sustainable process. Payment for ecosystem services is strategic to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss in the Atlantic Forest, an important global biodiversity hotspot. The objective of this article is to present the Atlantic Forest Connection Project, a government project in the State of São Paulo-Brazil, which aims to promote connectivity of forest remnants through public policies and payment for environmental services integrating protection of biodiversity,water production and agroecology. The Paraíba River Valley, located in the Paraíba Sul River basin, State of São Paulo, is one of the regions that benefit from this program. The region has 2,26 thousand inhabitants and the water produced supplies the metropolitan regions: Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The remaining vegetation of the Atlantic Forest is very fragmented, with extensive conserved areas, which limits the activity of fauna in addition to extensive cattle raising, which occupies about 50% of the productive areas in most municipalities. The Atlantic Forest Connection Project in the Paraíba Valley has actions in three directions: 1) investigation, management and monitoring (biodiversity and carbon), 2) restoration ecology in the Paraíba river basin, 3) sustainability of areas protected by law and actions for change the landscape matrix at the expense of the economic activities of farmers in conservation buffer zones. In this last action, farmers protect and restore the forest by converting their activities to a more sustainable land use and, in this way, they are compensated. In 2019, the payments for environmental services program benefited more than 700 farmers in 13 municipalities, and these payments helped to protect and restore approximately 20,718 hectares under the Atlantic Forest Biome. Keywords: Ecosystem Services, Payments for Environmental Services, Public Policy, Environmental Conservation, Biodiversity ID: 3624119
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    Negotiated territorial development in a multi-stakeholders participatory Resource Planning approach: an initial sustainable framework for the Near east Region 2016
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    Throughout the Near East, land and water shortages, land degradation, out of date land tenure systems and food insecurity are compounded by asymmetries in gender roles and power, by severe imbalances in the political-military structures within and between countries, by flagrant deficiencies in land and water management and control systems, and by the incessant increases in demand driven by high rates of population growth and urbanization. This interplay of forces and dynamics form a complex hydr o socio-political web that governs the allocation land and water and who benefits from their availability and their ultimate sustainability. The current allocation arrangements of the region's three major river basins - the Nile, the Euphrates-Tigris and the Jordan - are nascent sources of tension, and potential sources of conflict and violence. Political instability that characterizes the Near East continues to intensify scarcity, suppresses growth and engenders poverty and is being increasingl y exacerbated by the impending consequences of climate change. The Middle East is one of the most water poor and water stressed regions of the globe. While the region is home to 5.1% of the people of the world, it has about only 1% of the world renewable fresh water. Today's annual per capita availability of fresh water in the region is only one seventh of its 1960 level, falling from 3,300 cubic metres per person in 1960 to less than 500 cubic metres in 2015. This is the lowest per capita wat er availability in the world. The current land tenure systems are failing to address long-standing problems that include smallholder farmers, landless households and most marginalized groups such as women continue to compete for shrinking natural recourses, while pastoralists are losing control of their traditional grazing areas. Use, management and access to land and water are becoming extremely sensitive matters as the number of users grows. Governments and local actors have often perceived these major issues differently. This requires effort to be made to ensure a participatory approach to decision-making that effectively involves all the local actors concerned in an equitable and balanced manner. About 90% of the land area in this Region is subject to land degradation in different forms and over 45% of land suitable to farming is exposed to various types of land degradation which include soil nutrient depletion, salinity and wind and water erosion. Per capita arable land availa bility in the region is among the lowest in the world where many countries in the region show levels that are exceptionally low (on average less than 0.123 hectares per person) and the range varies between 0.01 hectares per person (Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Kuwait and Bahrain) to 0.34 hectares in the Sudan in 2015. Arable land as a percentage of land area in the region is very low ranging between 0.1% in Oman to 18.4% in Tunisia in 2013. Most of the countries in the region show shares below 10%. O nly Morocco, Tunisia, and Iraq sow percentages above 10%. Irrigated land areas in the region also represent a small share of total arable land areas. In many of the countries in the region these shares are way below the world average. Only Iran (17.4%) and the UAE (12.5%) show high relative shares in the period 2011-2015. The Region’s critical shortage of water and cultivable land, including the increasing pressure on these resources and their degradation makes their efficient management a pa ramount task. It will be necessary in this regard to promote the engagement of all concerned stakeholders in planning and managing land, water and agrobiodiversity. Actual physical scarcity of land and water, even in the Middle East region, is not the only key issue. Conditions of economic scarcity seem to be equally pressing; there is perhaps enough land and water to meet society's need, but there are few incentives for wise, efficient and egalitarian use of these critical resources. Climate change will impinge on this region’s fragile water balances, suitable land for cultivation, grazing land and food production capacities and will exacerbate the problems and issues of food security. Measures, policies, strategies and institutional capacities to mitigate the impending catastrophic consequences of climate change and to improve the societies’ resilience and adaptation to its consequences are needed now. The sooner the regulatory and institutional setups are put in place the easier the task to deal with climate and other risks. It is necessary and vital to rise up to this challenge by enlisting the stakeholders in the initiatives to promote sustainability and efficiency of land and water use and the management of food security issues. An active engagement of concerned stakeholders in planning and managing water, land and agrobiodiversity necessitates first and foremost the engagement of and participation of particularly women and girls and marginalized groups in all wate r and food aspects as they constitute the main agricultural labour force and the most deprived segments of society. Gender and the water and land nexus in the Arab region is an area where there is still relative little information. There is little systematic knowledge about the many means by which women and men manage water and land in the region. Evidence shows that while women in Egypt have a significant role to play in water use in the process of food production by controlling and managi ng water flows in the fields and supervising workers during irrigation, they rarely own the land they cultivate. Rural women in Yemen spend huge amounts of time collecting and transporting water, often up and down steep slopes and coordinate water allocation and distribution for the various needs of the family and the household but they are rarely involved in decision making and management councils that govern land and water uses. Women everywhere in the Middle East evaluate water quantity and q uality and prioritize water for drinking and health and sanitation purposes but they rarely share equally in the benefits of their labor or in the ownership of the land and water resources. This is why an integrated water and land management system anchored on a genuine participation of stakeholders will be crucial in determining whether the Arab world achieves the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and aspirations for reducing poverty and enhancing shared prosperity. Water and land are the c ommon currency which links nearly every SDG, and it will be a critical determinant of success. Abundant water supplies and cultivable land are vital for the production of food and will be essential to attaining SDG 2 on food security; clean and safe drinking water and sanitation systems are necessary for health as called for in SDGs 3 and 6; and water is needed for powering industries and creating the new jobs identified in SDGs 7 and 8. None of this is achievable without adequate and safe water and sufficient suitable land to nourish the planet’s life-sustaining ecosystem services identified in SDGs 13, 14 and 15.
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    Network of seed collectors in the Paraíba Valley-Brazil: Collective action for local restoration and development 2022
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    The Direct Seeding method based on large quantities of seeds, increased the demand for seeds, is a virtuous process of cooperation between actors in the restoration chain, generating jobs and income for local communities (ANTONIAZZI et al., 2021). The objective of this article is to present the Vale do Paraíba Seed Collectors Network as an emerging action of environmental governance and its contributions to ecological restoration in degraded areas of the Paraíba Valley, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The Vale do Paraíba region is located in the Paraíba Sul River basin. The region has 2,26 thousand inhabitants and the water produced supplies two metropolitan regions: São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The current remaining vegetation of the Atlantic Forest shows a lot of alteration with few extensive conserved areas, which limits faunal activity (DEVIDE et al, 2014). In the region, extensive cattle raising occupies about 50% of the productive areas in most municipalities. Direct seeding is strongly recommended for pasture areas with little or no natural regeneration. Due to the characteristics of the region, the sloping land, like a sea of hills, requires the non-use of heavy agricultural implements. It is a labor intensive activity, with great opportunities to generate work and income for the community (ROCHA et al., 2020). In recent years, the network of native seed collectors in the Paraíba Valley was initiated in partnership with the Caminhos da Semente Initiative and local organizations. Only in 2020-2021 was there a restoration of 24.49 ha in four different municipalities in the Valley, using direct seeding with part of the seeds collected locally. More than 2,253 kg of seeds were collected and processed, involving 43 collectors from 12 municipalities. About 31,210 dollars were paid to collectors. At the same time, the project fostered the establishment of agroforestry systems in the collectors' family units, ensuring food security and the sustainability of the chain (REDE AGROFLORESTAL DO VALE DO PARAÍBA, 2021). Keywords: Ecosystem Services, Payments for Environmental Services, Public Policy, Environmental ID: 3624113

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