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After ten years of readiness, risks, and challenges ahead for implementation of REDD+ in Nepal

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    A decade of REDD+ in Nepal: status and way forward
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    REDD+ is a climate change mitigation strategy aiming at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. This paper provides a general overview of the REDD+ readiness activities to get prepared for REDD+ implementation in Nepal. Readiness activities over the past decade have been focused on the development of National REDD+ strategy and establishment of institutional arrangements. Although most of the readiness activities have been carried out, some additional activities, including strengthening national forest monitoring system and updating forest reference level are still ongoing. A participatory and inclusive approach involving and engaging stakeholders in the REDD+ process is adopted in Nepal. After ten years of REDD+ readiness, Nepal is now entering into implementation phase. Emission reduction payment agreement with the forest carbon partnership facility in 2021 has paved the way for implementation phase. During the implementation phase, Nepal will implement emission reduction program at the subnational level in 13 districts of the Tarai Arc Landscape. Seven emission reduction program interventions will be carried out. With this agreement in place, Nepal will be eligible to receive result-based payments for emission reductions. Key words: Deforestation, forest degradation, emission reduction, implementation, readiness, Tarai Arc Landscape. ID: 3481182
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    Assessment of REDD+ MRV capacity in developing countries and implications under the Paris regime
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognized the importance of forests in combating climate change and agreed financial support for REDD+ activities in developing countries through the Warsaw REDD+ Framework (WRF). The REDD+ activities for conserving carbon stored in forests to reduce GHG emissions and to enhance the carbon sink function of forests are expected to serve as an important means of achieving the climatic goal. In this study, a set of criteria was devised to assess REDD+ Measuring, Reporting and Verifying (MRV) implementation capabilities of developing countries, which was applied to analyze REDD+ MRV levels in REDD+ countries. Based on Forest Reference Emission Level/ Forest Reference Level (FREL/FRL), National Strategy (NS), National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS) and Safeguard Information Summary (SIS) the countries have submitted, 36 REDD+ countries have submitted FREL/FRL only (Group I), while five countries fulfilled WRF requirements and registered REDD+ reduction results (Group II), and six received Result-based Payments (RBP) (Group III). From the highest to the lowest, overall MRV capability was also arranged in the order of Group III, II, and I, albeit Group I or Group II is at a higher level than the other groups in some elements. REDD+ countries in the Readiness Phase (Group I) would aim to have MRV capabilities of Groups II and III to receive RBP, and international support for REDD+ MRV capacity building can enable them to do. However, in addition to the receipt of RBP, REDD+ should be reflected in the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) as consistent reduction results at the national GHG inventory level, and the advancement of REDD+ MRV is expected to be the necessary and sufficient condition for REDD+ cooperation under the Paris Agreement cooperative approach framework. For the following groups, international cooperation is essential: countries in the Readiness Phase need to be supported with the establishment of a MRV framework, which will enable them to achieve REDD+ to receive RBP and be reflected in NDCs; for REDD+ countries that have thus far met WRF requirements, the REDD+ scope needs to be upscaled to national levels and the MRV system should be further advanced to establish a cooperative approach system that can achieve more ambitious reduction targets through forests. Keywords: Warsaw REDD+ Framework, MRV; deforestation; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; Nature based solution ID: 3623893
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    Determining best options for REDD+ benefit sharing plans
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Many REDD+ programs are approaching the payment phase after over a decade of preparation. Yet there are still lingering questions about benefit sharing. How should REDD+ initiatives balance efficiency and equity? Should payments be conditional? How is this balance affected by political and legal institutions? This paper analyzes case studies from Chile, Ghana, Nepal, and Viet Nam to answer these questions. First, the paper considers trade-offs between efficiency and equity. An efficiency-focused benefit-sharing plan (BSP) might favor compensating those with the highest emissions reduction potential, while an equity-focused BSP would rather favor the most vulnerable groups. We analyze this tension through the modalities of benefit sharing from the four case studies, highlighting their contextual differences. Second, the paper analyzes conditional versus unconditional payments. While REDD+ is based on the idea of payment when an actor has accomplished an action, our case studies reveal the role of unconditional payments. The difference affects equity and efficiency, allowing us to apply some lessons from the first section. We conclude with key understandings of REDD+ BSP options and arrangements. Keywords: Deforestation and forest degradation, Sustainable forest management, Adaptive and integrated management, Governance, Climate change ID: 3621775

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