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Innovations for inclusive agricultural finance and risk mitigation mechanisms










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    Book (stand-alone)
    Innovations pour le financement agricole et mécanismes d’atténuation des risques inclusives
    Le cas de Tamwil El Fellah au Maroc
    2016
    Also available in:

    Le Plan Maroc Vert du Gouvernement du Maroc souligne le rôle important del’agriculture et définit des stratégies visant à promouvoir le développement de ce secteur en y attirant des investissements nationaux et internationaux et en organisant les acteurs privés en chaînes de valeur concurrentielles et rentables. Malgré ces efforts, cependant, de grands défis restent à relever. L’un des principaux concerne la disponibilité de services financiers pour les acteurs ruraux de l’agriculture. Le capita l moyen nécessaire chaque année pour financer l'agriculture est estimé à 30 milliards de Dirhams. Les finances du secteur bancaire marocain représente seulement 17 pour cent de cette demande et le Crédit Agricole du Maroc est responsable d'environ 80 pour cent de cette part du financement à l'agriculture. Une large part de la population rurale, composée des ménages les plus pauvres, continue de voir ses besoins financiers principalement satisfaits par des fournisseurs de services financiers info rmels, le secteur financier formel n’étant pas en mesure de proposer, dans les zones rurales, des produits adaptés et répondant aux besoins d’un développement durable. La présente étude de cas décrit un modèle particulièrement innovant de fourniture de services financiers aux ménages ruraux les plus pauvres dépendant de l’agriculture – le modèle Tamwil El Fellah (TAF), société créée par le Groupe Crédit Agricole du Maroc (GCAM). L'analyse présentée dans cette étude vise à mettre en évidence des principes importants qui peuvent être appliqués par les institutions financières et les organismes de promotion pour faciliter des services financiers ruraux et agricoles inclusives compris le contexte des pays en développement.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Agriculture and poverty in commodity dependent African countries
    A rural household perspective from the United Republic of Tanzania
    2006
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    No results found.

    This report explores how farm productivity affects poverty, and how various factor market constraints affect farm productivity. The empirical analysis draws on representative surveys of farm households in Kilimanjaro and Ruvuma, two cash crop growing regions in the United Republic of Tanzania. Poorer households were found not only to possess fewer assets, but also to be much less productive. Findings show that agricultural productivity directly affects household consumption and hence overall pov erty and welfare. Stochastic production frontier analysis indicates that many farmers are farming well below best practice in the region. Holding inputs constant, they attain on average only 60 percent of the output obtained by their best counterparts. Analysis of allocative efficiency suggests that family labour is substantially overutilized, a sign of considerable excess labour supply. Use of intermediate inputs on the other hand is well below what is commensurate with the estimated value of t heir marginal productivities. An important reason for low input use is lack of credit to purchase inputs, but difficult access to the inputs themselves and being connected to the economy more broadly are also important impediments. Easy access to credit is positively associated with being a member of a savings association or being in a contractual arrangement with a cooperative or firm. Irrigation infrastructure facilitates access to credit. Together these findings support a continuing emphasis on increasing agricultural productivity in designing poverty reduction policies. Better agronomic practices and increased input use will be crucial in this strategy. Better access to inputs and improved roads and transport services will further help boost input application. Financial constraints might be relieved through fostering institutional arrangements facilitating contract enforcement (e.g. contract farming, marketing cooperatives) and institutions that facilitate saving by the households themselves. They may also be relieved by the provision of more adequate consumption safety nets. The overall results suggest that a pro-poor rural development strategy needs to be anchored around improvements in agricultural productivity.
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    Document
    Romania: Bank Lending to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Rural areas; an Analysis of Supply and Demand
    Report N. 9 - January 2005
    2005
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    No results found.

    The economic situation in Romania has improved over the last years and starting in 2001 the growth rate averaged some 5 percent per year. Also the development of the financial sector has gathered pace and domestic and foreign direct investments, in view of the country’s accession to the EU in 2007, are rapidly picking up. These favourable trends, however, are far from being evenly distributed over the territory: Bucharest and a few other big towns in more favourable regions account for the bulk of the growth, while a large part of the country’s economic potential, representing small cities and rural communities, is not fully utilized. One of the reasons that financial resources allocated to rural areas remain under-utilized is the inadequacy of financial services to match the needs of local business, notwithstanding the number of specially designed financing programs in this respect. This publication is part of report series published under the FAO Investment Centre/European Bank f or Reconstruction and Development Cooperation Programme. The series presents sector reviews and studies undertaken in Central and Eastern Europe that cover development issues and innovative areas to increase investment in agriculture in the region. Romania's entry into the European Union in 2007 is expected to have a significant impact on the country's small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in rural areas. EBRD's Financial Institutions team, together with its Agribusiness team, h as developed a Facility to mix EU grant and EBRD loans in favour of rural SMEs in EU accession countries. EBRD called upon FAO's expertise to review lending opportunities in Romania's rural sector. This report was prepared to put forward recommendations to EBRD and local financial intermediaries, on which clients the EU/EBRD Facility should focus and on the types of financial products required to serve these new clients. The analysis can be used by other local or international financial institut ions interested in rural credit.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    Innovations pour le financement agricole et mécanismes d’atténuation des risques inclusives
    Le cas de Tamwil El Fellah au Maroc
    2016
    Also available in:

    Le Plan Maroc Vert du Gouvernement du Maroc souligne le rôle important del’agriculture et définit des stratégies visant à promouvoir le développement de ce secteur en y attirant des investissements nationaux et internationaux et en organisant les acteurs privés en chaînes de valeur concurrentielles et rentables. Malgré ces efforts, cependant, de grands défis restent à relever. L’un des principaux concerne la disponibilité de services financiers pour les acteurs ruraux de l’agriculture. Le capita l moyen nécessaire chaque année pour financer l'agriculture est estimé à 30 milliards de Dirhams. Les finances du secteur bancaire marocain représente seulement 17 pour cent de cette demande et le Crédit Agricole du Maroc est responsable d'environ 80 pour cent de cette part du financement à l'agriculture. Une large part de la population rurale, composée des ménages les plus pauvres, continue de voir ses besoins financiers principalement satisfaits par des fournisseurs de services financiers info rmels, le secteur financier formel n’étant pas en mesure de proposer, dans les zones rurales, des produits adaptés et répondant aux besoins d’un développement durable. La présente étude de cas décrit un modèle particulièrement innovant de fourniture de services financiers aux ménages ruraux les plus pauvres dépendant de l’agriculture – le modèle Tamwil El Fellah (TAF), société créée par le Groupe Crédit Agricole du Maroc (GCAM). L'analyse présentée dans cette étude vise à mettre en évidence des principes importants qui peuvent être appliqués par les institutions financières et les organismes de promotion pour faciliter des services financiers ruraux et agricoles inclusives compris le contexte des pays en développement.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (stand-alone)
    Agriculture and poverty in commodity dependent African countries
    A rural household perspective from the United Republic of Tanzania
    2006
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    This report explores how farm productivity affects poverty, and how various factor market constraints affect farm productivity. The empirical analysis draws on representative surveys of farm households in Kilimanjaro and Ruvuma, two cash crop growing regions in the United Republic of Tanzania. Poorer households were found not only to possess fewer assets, but also to be much less productive. Findings show that agricultural productivity directly affects household consumption and hence overall pov erty and welfare. Stochastic production frontier analysis indicates that many farmers are farming well below best practice in the region. Holding inputs constant, they attain on average only 60 percent of the output obtained by their best counterparts. Analysis of allocative efficiency suggests that family labour is substantially overutilized, a sign of considerable excess labour supply. Use of intermediate inputs on the other hand is well below what is commensurate with the estimated value of t heir marginal productivities. An important reason for low input use is lack of credit to purchase inputs, but difficult access to the inputs themselves and being connected to the economy more broadly are also important impediments. Easy access to credit is positively associated with being a member of a savings association or being in a contractual arrangement with a cooperative or firm. Irrigation infrastructure facilitates access to credit. Together these findings support a continuing emphasis on increasing agricultural productivity in designing poverty reduction policies. Better agronomic practices and increased input use will be crucial in this strategy. Better access to inputs and improved roads and transport services will further help boost input application. Financial constraints might be relieved through fostering institutional arrangements facilitating contract enforcement (e.g. contract farming, marketing cooperatives) and institutions that facilitate saving by the households themselves. They may also be relieved by the provision of more adequate consumption safety nets. The overall results suggest that a pro-poor rural development strategy needs to be anchored around improvements in agricultural productivity.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Document
    Romania: Bank Lending to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Rural areas; an Analysis of Supply and Demand
    Report N. 9 - January 2005
    2005
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    The economic situation in Romania has improved over the last years and starting in 2001 the growth rate averaged some 5 percent per year. Also the development of the financial sector has gathered pace and domestic and foreign direct investments, in view of the country’s accession to the EU in 2007, are rapidly picking up. These favourable trends, however, are far from being evenly distributed over the territory: Bucharest and a few other big towns in more favourable regions account for the bulk of the growth, while a large part of the country’s economic potential, representing small cities and rural communities, is not fully utilized. One of the reasons that financial resources allocated to rural areas remain under-utilized is the inadequacy of financial services to match the needs of local business, notwithstanding the number of specially designed financing programs in this respect. This publication is part of report series published under the FAO Investment Centre/European Bank f or Reconstruction and Development Cooperation Programme. The series presents sector reviews and studies undertaken in Central and Eastern Europe that cover development issues and innovative areas to increase investment in agriculture in the region. Romania's entry into the European Union in 2007 is expected to have a significant impact on the country's small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in rural areas. EBRD's Financial Institutions team, together with its Agribusiness team, h as developed a Facility to mix EU grant and EBRD loans in favour of rural SMEs in EU accession countries. EBRD called upon FAO's expertise to review lending opportunities in Romania's rural sector. This report was prepared to put forward recommendations to EBRD and local financial intermediaries, on which clients the EU/EBRD Facility should focus and on the types of financial products required to serve these new clients. The analysis can be used by other local or international financial institut ions interested in rural credit.

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