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Carryover in feed and transfer from feed to food of unavoidable and unintended residues of approved veterinary drugs

Report of the Joint FAO/WHO expert meeting – 8–10 January 2019, FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy












​FAO and WHO. 2019. Carryover in feed and transfer from feed to food of unavoidable and unintended residues of approved veterinary drugs. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO expert meeting – 8–10 January 2019, FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy. FAO Animal Production and Health Report No. 13. Rome, Italy.





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    Food safety is an important global public health and trade matter, with chemical hazards occupying centre stage due to associated acute and chronic health outcomes. There is also an increasing need to address antimicrobial resistance concerns. While food remains a major vehicle for exposure to these hazards, related matrices cannot be ignored. Animal feed for instance may contain drug or pesticide residues as well as mycotoxins that could carry-over to food either as parent compounds or their metabolites of toxicological relevance. Contaminated water is also another medium of potential exposure to food hazards. A concerted effort is required to address the need for a safe food supply and one critical stakeholder is the testing laboratory. While this requires trained and capable analysts as well as reliable instrumentation, analytical methods are a major need. Development and validation – to ensure fitness of purpose – and availability of these methods is a necessity. This manual, consisting of several Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), presents another opportunity for laboratories to address gaps in analytical methods and/or expand their options. The manual contains techniques for analyzing certain mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, fumonisin and ochratoxin in matrices that include milk, edible vegetable oil and animal feed etc. A range of veterinary drug residues including permitted and prohibited substances in animal matrices including fish, are also addressed. Several pesticide residues in cereals, fruits and vegetables are also covered. A couple of methods for analysis of selected metals are also presented.
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    The need for feed for terrestrial and aquatic animals continues to rise with the increasing demand for foods of animal origin; however, the challenge is not only to meet the growing need for feed but also to ensure its safety and thus contributing to the safety of the entire food chain. Feed safety incorporates the impact on human as well as animal health and welfare, which, in turn, can affect productivity. Hazards in feed may be inherent to feed ingredients as well as introduced during feed production, processing, handling, storage, transportation, and use. Hazards in feed may also result from accidental or deliberate human intervention. The expert meeting reviewed and discussed potential hazards in feed of chemical, biological and physical origin. It addressed hazards, as well as their occurrence in feed are described, and transfer from feed to food, relevance for food safety, impact on animal health, and emerging issues and trends. In addition, specific consideration was given to feed and products of feed production technologies of increasing relevance, for instance insects, former food and food processing by-products, biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) by-products, aquatic plants and marine resources.
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    This volume of FAO JECFA Monographs contains residue evaluation of certain veterinary drugs prepared at the 88th Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), held in Rome, 22–31 October 2019. The present meeting was the eighty-eigth in a series of similar meetings. JECFA meeting specifically convened to consider residues of veterinary drugs in food. The tasks before the Committee were to further elaborate principles for evaluating the safety of residues of veterinary drugs in food, establishing acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and acute reference doses (ARfDs), and recommending maximum residue limits (MRLs) for such residues when the drugs under consideration are administered to food-producing animals in accordance with good practice in the use of veterinary drugs (GVP); to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs; and to respond to specific requests from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF).

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