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Enhance the Preparedness and Response Capacity of the Countries of the Sub-Regional Office for Eastern Africa to the Mango Mealybug (Rastrococcus Invadens Williams) (Phase 1) - TCP/SFE/3801








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    Regional Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (RSPM) for Mango Fruit
    RSPM for Mango Fruit
    2021
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    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of important fruit commodities. Its production has been growing in the Asia and Pacific region. However, its trade is sometimes hindered by pests when they are introduced to importing countries and have the potential of negative economic impacts. Pests that move with fresh mango and have historically posed a serious threat to agriculture include fruit flies, fruit boring moths and beetles, as well as scale insects and mealybugs. Risks of such pests may vary within and between countries. In this connection, importing NPPOs should conduct pest risk analysis (PRA) to identify quarantine pests and provide the technical justification for phytosanitary import requirements. Hence a regional standard has been developed. The standard will help promote trade by providing a set of harmonized measures that may be applied to the management of pest risks identified by the PRA. Where appropriate, pests are grouped according to the measures that effectively manage pest risk. This standard provides guidance on procedures for establishing phytosanitary import requirements. It identifies and describes specific phytosanitary measures that could be implemented to reduce pest risk and provides guidance on sampling, inspection and phytosanitary certification of mango fruit for export. This standard also provides national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) with guidance on reducing the risk of introduction of specific pests associated with the international movement of fresh mango fruit intended for consumption or processing. This standard applies to all varieties of mango fruit with or without a small section of fruit stalk (pedicel) attached but without leaves or stem. Some major pests of mango fruit, and measures to manage them are also included in this standard. These measures include those that have been adopted as International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) as well as those that are used by APPPC member countries to reduce the movement of pests with the international trade of fresh mango. This standard does not address the issues related to living modified organisms, food safety, climate change, quality of mango fruit, or diversion from intended use.
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    Status of Cochineal and Opuntia spp. production in the Near East North Africa (NENA) region 2022: a perspective from Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Syrian Arab Republic and Tunisia 2022
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    The multispecies (spp.) plant genus Opuntia (commonly referred to as cactus pear) plays a significant socioeconomic, environmental and nutritional role for many countries in the Near East and North Africa (NENA) region where cactus production is becoming an increasingly popular source of livelihoods. One of the major pests that threaten Opuntia spp. worldwide is Dactylopius opuntiae (D. opuntiae), commonly known as prickly pear cochineal. Presence of this pest in the NENA region was first recorded in Lebanon in 2012. Since then, rapid cochineal spread has been officially documented in Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic and Morocco with differing levels of significance. The insect is considered one of the most significant insect pests for cactus orchards, where it can infest large areas causing significant damage and limiting cactus forage and fruit production. This assessment report indicates that most countries were unprepared for the outbreak. Lack of knowledge of the pest and slow action to establish quarantine areas led to its rapid spread. This assessment report emphasizes the need for greater agroecological alternatives to contain the cochineal spread in NENA. Greater research and implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are needed with broader promotion and adoption of the pest’s natural enemies. The report outlined a pest monitoring strategy, a protocol for cochineal control and road map and road map for the next actions to be taken by the countries.
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    Emergency Preparedness and Response to Desert Locust Infestation in Uganda - TCP/UGA/3801 2022
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    Because of its high mobility and wide and varied feeding habits, the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria is a dreaded insect that can, each day, eat its own weight in fresh food, form dense mobile swarms and travel up to 150 km Desert locust swarms reportedly migrated from Yemen to Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia between December 2019 and January 2020 prompting FAO operated early warning system desert locust information services ( to issue alerts about a potential spread to South Sudan and Uganda Heavy rains in the Horn of Africa in December 2019 created favorable breeding conditions with the potential to last until June 2020 possibly resulting in large numbers of swarms Swarms spread quickly and at an alarming rate Various sized desert locust swarms entered Kenya and a 40 km by 60 km swam was observed entering Kenya from Somalia in 2020 Uganda has not experienced a desert locust invasion since the early 1960 s, when it had devastating effects on the country's food security situation However, FAO had at the time identified a low to moderate risk of desert locust swarms entering Uganda With limited control capacity in Kenya, the risk that some swarms would spread into the north and north eastern parts of Uganda was considered, particularly in the Kenya bordering subregion of Karamoja With a looming invasion threat, Ugandan government officials analysed the country's preparedness in the event of an infestation and drafted a contingency plan Recognizing the lack of knowledge about this pest and the low capacity for surveillance and control in the country, there was an urgent need to mobilize and educate national and local institutions, as well as the general public, to conduct surveillance and reporting, and prepare for control operations.

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