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Tree-biomass-carbon estimation in the coastal afforestation sites of Chittagong, Bangladesh

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Increasing green cover and carbon accumulation through afforestation of salt affected areas in drylands of India
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    As part of its intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) to the Paris climate agreement 2015, India has committed to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030. One of the strategies worked out towards this is to afforest about 2.98 million ha of salty wastelands in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab states of India. Trials were conducted on barren lithic, calcid, coarse sandy to loamy sand salt affected soil in Jodhpur (Rajasthan) and silty black highly saline soil in little Rann of kachchh (Gujarat). The approach was to grow salt tolerant species & use soil amendments. The indigenous multipurpose halophytic tree Salvadora persica maintained 66.7 to 85.2 % survival even after ten years. Gypsum + 9g N treatment gave 85.2 % survival and 12.0 & 5.67 kg tree-1 of fresh & dry biomass in arid sandy soils in Rajasthan while on black soil in Gujarat, wheat husk (WH)+FYM+urea treatment gave 90% survival and 7.17 & 3.71 kg tree -1 Green & dry biomass. A. bivenosa was more suitable with WH+FYM treatment on black soil. Acacia ampliceps (Australian tree) recorded 76 % survival on gypsum treated deep alkali soils (60 to 75 cm depth) and yielded twofold biomass (12.0 & 5.35 tree-1 to 5.43 & 2.14 kg tree-1 fresh & dry biomass for gypsum treated and 8.1 & 5.35 kg tree-1 to 3.9 & 1.56 kg tree-1 fresh & dry biomass for untreated trees on deeper and shallow soils) at five years of age. Natural regeneration of S. persica was also observed on sandy soil in Rajasthan, especially under Prosopis juliflora. Overall, significant improvement in site conditions improved and growth of indigenous vegetation was observed. Keywords: Sustainable forest management; Deforestation and forest degradation; Landscape management; Climate change; Economic Development ID: 3485327
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    Promoting Terminalia brownii as a commercial indigenous tree species in drylands, East Africa
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Kenya’s forest cover is estimated at 7.4% of the land mass cover. Forests are important in ensuring biodiversity conservation and providing ecosystem goods and services, improving community livelihoods and national GDP. There is need to enhance afforestation and reforestation programmes to achieve the envisioned 10% tree cover target. However, this effort is constrained by climate change issues arising from unsustainable exploitation of wood for charcoal and firewood leading to the depletion of important tree species such as T. brownii. The domestication of T. brownii under agroforestry systems and other tree planting programmes are constrained by lack of adequate supply of superior and high quality seeds and seedlings, poor silvi-cultural management techniques, low rates of integration into smallholder agroforestry programs, limited knowledge on crop-tree interactions and lack of allometric models to estimate biomass yield and carbon stock. A multidisciplinary research project funded by the National Research Fund (NRF) is ongoing and is geared towards promoting the propagation and regeneration of T. brownii under agroforestry systems in the drylands of Kenya to mitigate climate change. A number of preliminary findings have been reported, such are; (1) Terminalia brownii fruits have mechanical dormancy imposed by the hard samara fruit and that extracted T. brownii seeds record a high percentage of above 80% under warm conditions; (2) germination of T. brownii fruits and seeds are significantly affected by fungal pathogens and insect pests; (3) five variables significantly influence the decision to domesticate T. brownii these are; education level of household head, importance of farm to the household income, access to credit, dependency ratio and intercropping; (4) studies on the spatial distribution and occurrence and development of allometric equation for estimating above and below-ground biomass of T. brownii in the drylands of Kenya are ongoing. Further assessment on growth performance have shown that T. brownii is generally fast growing; can attain an increase in height of (~1.0 m) and DGL (3.0 cm) annually, with significance difference in growth within and between provenances and that the it can withstand many other growth challenges despite the harsh weather conditions. These findings suggest that T. brownii is a promising tree species in agroforestry systems and afforestation in drylands and that there exist genetic variability among the available provenances thus the need to involve more stakeholders in seedling production and to embark on...... Key words: T. brownii, Commercial tree, growth performance, drylands of Kenya ID: 3623166
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    Why is artificial afforestation crucial for restoring nature? Studies on the dried bottom of Aral Sea, Kazakhstan
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The Aral Sea, formerly the fourth largest inland lake located in Central Asia, has reduced dramatically as it lost most of its volume due to the large-scale water withdrawal for the cultivation of irrigated crops starting from the 1960s. The desiccated seafloor has become a source of salt, sand, and dust transfer to the adjacent regions, negatively affecting human health and the environment by inhibiting the survival and growth of the vegetation. In response, to stabilize the saline sand blowing from the Aral seabed, multiple domestic and international efforts have been performed to establish vegetation cover with indigenous trees of Haloxylon species as well as other salt- and water-stress tolerant woody and herbaceous plants of the region. As part of the afforestation project supported by the Korea Forest Service (South Korea) in Kazakhstan, field studies examined the impacts of the afforestation on carbon stock and soil quality. The summarized findings are as follows: 1) growth of planted seedlings indicates the measurable sequestration of carbon, which ultimately help to estimate its contribution to climate change mitigation by calculating the atmospheric greenhouse gas reductions; 2) afforestation increased the soil organic matter content which is closely related to soil fertility; 3) afforestation improved soil chemical properties for plants and soil microbes; 4) soil amelioration effects by the afforestation were statistically similar to those by natural vegetation succession. However, the soil conditions in the natural succession area improved after almost 50 years versus about 15 years in the afforested area. This signifies the relative efficiency of afforestation activities and thus helps justify the investments made. Based on the studies, we recommend further research to raise the efficiency of afforestation in arid areas, thereby reinforcing ecosystem restoration and climate change mitigation. Keywords: Aral Sea; afforestation; desertification; climate change; restoration; soil amelioration; carbon stock ID: 3615605

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