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A study on the estimation of threshold of crown fire transition with the slope conditions

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Article
    Ecohydrology-based management as a tool for preventing wildfires in the Mediterranean urban interface area
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The adaptation to climate change of forest areas with intense anthropic pressure requires innovative management models characterized by an increasingly efficient use of available resources. In Mediterranean areas, the most intense and persistent droughts alter the water relations in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) continuum and therefore the flammability of the vegetation and the risk of wildfires. The main aim of this work is to present the potential of using detailed information characterizing the SPA for estimating key variables used for forest fire prevention. To this end, physiological, ecohydrological and meteorological measurements (water potential, soil/plant water content, sap flow, etc.) are carried out to model the response of live fuel moisture content (LFMC) to environmental conditions in representative Aleppo pine plots located in a forested area close to Valencia city (Spain). In addition, spectral indexes estimated from Sentinel bands (NDVI, EVI, NDMI, MSI, RGR, BSI and NDWI) are also tested for obtaining the spatio-temporal dynamics of LFMC at the forestscale. The results show the importance of assessing LFMC along the entire hydrological year due to its variation with phenology: minimum values are obtained at the beginning of spring (81.3%, 64mm of soil water content in the profile and 0.2Kpa of VPD) vs. 90.1% during the driest environmental (summer) conditions (18mm of soil water content and 1.9Kpa of VPD). Combining physiological and environmental predictors provides good estimations of LFMC (R 2 >0.70-0.84 in several cases). In addition, RGR, BSI and NDWI indexes are found to be promising predictors of LFMC (R2= 0.7). Efforts such as the one presented here to link a detailed SPA characterization with fire prevention are innovative and emerging, but also necessary when realistic estimations of LFMC dynamics are required. Particularly, our results will serve to improve the forest management of Mediterranean forests, allowing for the precise prediction and identification of forest wildfire behavior and risk thresholds (from surface fire to crown fire), but also the design of optimum irrigation schemes to decrease the risk of crown fires as those with the highest negative impacts. Keywords: live fuel moisture content; ecohydrology; fire weather index; wildland-urban interface; sapflow ID: 3623757
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    Prediction of wildland-urban interface fires using a digital twin
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The feasibility of using a digital twin for the prediction of the wildland-urban interface fires was studied. The wildfire ignition and spread were investigated for a cultural site (Lecture Hall of Sosu Confucian Academy in Youngju, South Korea) using the Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator (WFDS). The vegetation and building information were obtained using aerial LiDAR imaging. The ground and aerial photographs validated the captured fuel and building information in terms of their sizes and distributions. The validated fuel and building information were conveyed to a digital twin domain for computational fluid dynamics calculation. A parametric study was performed for various ignition locations, atmospheric conditions (wind speed, direction, humidity), and moisture contents. Based on the prediction results, fuel treatments were suggested to prevent the ignition of the buildings by wildfire. The study showed that using a digital twin could provide a reasonable prediction for the wildfire spread at the wildland-urban interface, and the prediction results could serve as guidelines for wildfire spread prevention activities. The use of a digital twin for wildfire spread prediction will be further investigated for more test sites and fuel conditions. Keywords: Climate change, Research ID: 3617379
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    Influence of snow cover change and temperature anomalies on the transformation of boreal forests and fires in north Asia
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    In the last three decades, the number and area of fires in the North Asian taiga, forest-tundra and tundra is increasing. Analysis of spatial data on fires against the information on local climate anomalies indicates significant correlation. The estimates are generally based on average seasonal temperatures and the duration of the vegetation period; however, while these parameters are useful for global bioclimatic regularities, they are not sufficient for local forest change influenced by small-scale climate effects. Comparison of satellite images at the beginning and the end of the snow period with patterns of fire activities shows that the frequency and scale of temperature and snow anomalies are also key factors. Field studies that aimed to verify the snow properties as identified through satellite imagery were carried out on more than 200 plots in the Urals and the Russian Far East. It was found out that tree crowns of dark-coniferous and mixed forests intercept up to a quarter of total snow reducing accumulation and decreasing snowmelt logging. This leads to the desiccation of the soil layer in spring and increases the risk of fires in forests, where this risk used to be low. Another important effect is the increased frequency of dry and hot autumns in taiga and forest-tundra, which dramatically aggravate the risk of litter ignition. Field observations and analysis of satellite images for 30 years give information on the spatial differentiation of the effects. The higher risk of fires associated with the redistribution of snow by tree crowns is typical of the south and central taiga. Soil desiccation in autumn is the important factor for fires in the north taiga and forest-tundra. These effects are additional to the seasonal temperature anomalies, which are the key risk factor. Taking account of these effects in context of the global warming provides better estimation of fires, including the risk of fires in unique forests on protected areas in North Asia. Keywords: Climate change, Adaptive and integrated management, Biodiversity conservation, Sustainable forest management, Research ID: 3485018

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