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Developing an Innovative Peatlands Monitoring System - UNJP/GLO/927/OPS









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    Book (stand-alone)
    Peatlands and climate planning
    Part 1: Peatlands and climate commitments
    2022
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    Peatlands contain huge carbon stocks yet they cover only 3 percent of the world’s land area. Improved peatland management provides climate change mitigation and adaptation opportunities. Peatland conservation and restoration also secures ecosystem services that support adaptive capacity and resilience. This brief is part of the Global Peatlands Initiative’s work to support national governments in the process of enhancing their climate commitments, such as the nationally determined contributions as well as the long-term strategies through the inclusion of climate action on peatlands. Including peatlands under various sectors’ emission reduction and adaptation targets, such as in the agriculture, forestry and other land use sector, the energy sector, can greatly contribute to reaching the goals set under the Paris Agreement. This is the first of a package of products to inform key stakeholders on practical and applicable means. The authors aim to motivate national agencies to include peatland considerations into national legislative, regulatory, planning and monitoring processes to ensure climate action implementation on these ecosystems.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Peatlands – guidance for climate change mitigation through conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use 2012
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    Peatland drainage - mainly for agriculture, grazing and forestry - and peat fires are responsible for almost one quarter of carbon emissions from the land use sector. Peatlands and organic soils contain 30 percent of the world’s soil carbon but only cover 3 percent of the Earth’s land area. Peatlands provide many important ecosystem services, including water regulation, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration and storage. Through conservation, restoration and better management, organ ic soils and peatlands can make a substantial contribution to reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. This report provides information on management and finance options to achieve emissions reductions and enhance other vital ecosystem services from peatlands. A decision support tree guides users through potential options for the management of both cultivated and uncultivated peatlands. The report also summarizes the methodologies and data available for quantifying greenhouse gas emis sions from peatlands and organic soils. Practical approaches are presented concerning measuring, reporting and verification, and accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Country-specific case studies illustrate the problems, solutions and opportunities associated with peatland management. This report is a handbook for policy-makers, technical audiences and others interested in peatlands. This is the second edition of the report, which was first published in May 2012. The second edition has new in formation concerning grazing on peatlands and updates related to the finance options as well as measuring, reporting and verifying emissions and emission reductions. The authors of the report welcome any feedback or input (micca@fao.org) and hope that the information provided may support efforts to make a meaningful contribution to combat climate change through conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use of peatland.
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    Article
    The consolidated European synthesis of CO2 emissions and removals for the European Union and United Kingdom: 1990–2018 2021
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    Reliable quantification of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), including that of their trends and uncertainties, is essential to monitoring the progress in mitigating anthropogenic emissions under the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. This study provides a consolidated synthesis of estimates for all anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks of CO2 for the European Union and UK (EU27 + UK), derived from a combination of state-of-the-art bottom-up (BU) and top-down (TD) data sources and models. Given the wide scope of the work and the variety of datasets involved, this study focuses on identifying essential questions which need to be answered to properly understand the differences between various datasets, in particular with regards to the less-well-characterized fluxes from managed ecosystems. The work integrates recent emission inventory data, process-based ecosystem model results, data-driven sector model results and inverse modeling estimates over the period 1990–2018. BU and TD products are compared with European national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) reported under the UNFCCC in 2019, aiming to assess and understand the differences between approaches. For the uncertainties in NGHGIs, we used the standard deviation obtained by varying parameters of inventory calculations, reported by the member states following the IPCC Guidelines. Variation in estimates produced with other methods, like atmospheric inversion models (TD) or spatially disaggregated inventory datasets (BU), arises from diverse sources including within-model uncertainty related to parameterization as well as structural differences between models. In comparing NGHGIs with other approaches, a key source of uncertainty is that related to different system boundaries and emission categories (CO2 fossil) and the use of different land use definitions for reporting emissions from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities (CO2 land). At the EU27 + UK level, the NGHGI (2019) fossil CO2 emissions (including cement production) account for 2624 Tg CO2 in 2014 while all the other seven bottom-up sources are consistent with the NGHGIs and report a mean of 2588 (± 463 Tg CO2). The inversion reports 2700 Tg CO2 (± 480 Tg CO2), which is well in line with the national inventories. Over 2011–2015, the CO2 land sources and sinks from NGHGI estimates report −90 Tg C yr−1 ±  30 Tg C yr−1 while all other BU approaches report a mean sink of −98 Tg C yr−1 (± 362 Tg of C from dynamic global vegetation models only).

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