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Trends in water and agricultural development, Chapter 2 of the book: Water for food, water for life 









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    Book (stand-alone)
    Proceedings of the international forum on water resources management and irrigation modernization in Shanxi Province, China 2007
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    Water is essential for life and plays a key role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. As the population continues to grow and the economy develops, competition for water uses between different users has intensified and induced excessive strain on the environment. Climate change and water pollution further aggravate the situation. Today, 2.8 billion people are affected by some form of water scarcity, and the number of regions affected by water shortages is on the rise. By 2025, two-thi rds of the world's population will live in countries affected by water scarcity, including one-third of the populations of China and India. Shanxi is a typical inland province in the middle reach of the Yellow River in China, with an average annual precipitation of 500 mm. Irrigated agriculture is the biggest water consumer, but its overall performance is far from satisfactory. Water scarcity has become the major constraint to sustainable socio-economic development in the province. To share nati onal and international experiences and to study these issues systematically and comprehensively, the Shanxi Provincial People's Government and the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific co-sponsored an International Forum on Water Resources Management and Irrigation Modernization in Shanxi Province, China from 22 to 24 November 2006, attended by some 260 participants including international and national experts. The forum reviewed the current status and future trends of water resource man agement and irrigation development in Shanxi Province, shared relevant national and international experiences in arid and semi-arid areas, and discussed and recommended options for integrated water resource management and irrigation modernization in Shanxi Province. This proceedings provides not only guidance for policy-makers in Shanxi Province, but is also a useful reference for those living in arid and semi-arid areas in other parts of Asia and elsewhere.
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    Project
    Enhanced Crossboundary Water Resource Management in the Senegal River Basin - TCP/INT/3602 2020
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    Livelihoods across a large portion of sub-Saharan Africa are dependent upon rainfed agriculture, with only a small percentage of arable land benefiting from irrigation. Agricultural growth has been constrained by the pressures placed on land through rapid population growth,migration, displacement caused by localized conflict, pricevolatility, desertification and flooding, among otherfactors. With land and water resources dwindling through erosion and rising demand for food, forage, timber and water, poverty has become generalized, in particular inrural areas. The Senegal River Basin represents Guinea, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal. Poverty in this region remains high, with the quality of life among the lowest on the continent. The Human Development Index (HDI) scoresfor each of the four countries put them in the bottom 25 percent of global rankings. The initiatives carried out by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) at national and regional levels, together with the river basin-level activities conducted by the OMVS, helped to strengthen resilience to drought and climate uncertainty among the population living in the Senegal River Basin, as well as improving livelihoods. The OMVS provides a positive example ofthe equitable sharing of water resources, through the development and management activities carried out by countries forming part of a cross-border river basin. The aim of the present project was to strengthen these efforts.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Informing Water-Energy-Water nexus decisions: the integrated WEF nexus model of Jordan 2022
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    Due to the water shortage in Jordan, the safe water abstraction yields are often exceeded. Groundwater extractions require large amounts of energy, due to the decreasing water table levels of almost all aquifers in the country. Therefore, around 14.9 percent of the supplied electricity is consumed by water pumping and other water services. Moreover, additional energy requirements will be needed to deal with an expanding water supply through desalination and wastewater treatment.The agriculture sector accounts for the largest share of water demand (around 52 percent), where again, groundwater is the main source. Furthermore, as a consequence of its water-scarce nature, Jordan faces increasing food insecurity being forced to import around 87 percent of its food. Achieving sustainable water-energy-food (WEF) resources security requires developing safe operational boundaries of water use defining the conditions for water sustainability in Jordan. These boundaries were defined using a Water-Food-Energy-Climate-Ecosystems Nexus analytical framework that was highly stakeholder-driven, combined with quantitative and qualitative methods developed by the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (KTH) and the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). In this flyer, the reader will be able to know the methodology used to develop WEF NEXUS model, scenario analysis, results and key findings.

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