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Response to Increased Livestock Disease Outbreaks in South Sudan - TCP/SSD/3702









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    Book (stand-alone)
    Africa Report - No. 3 December 2005 2005
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    Eastern Africa Harvesting of the 2005 main season cereal crops is underway in northern parts of the subregion while it has been completed in southern parts. A generally better 2005 harvest compared to 2004 is expected to improve food availability in most countries of the subregion. The overall food situation, however, remains precarious with high malnutrition rates reported in several countries arising from effects of war, displacement and past droughts. In Somalia, below av erage 2005 main “gu” season harvest in the south and an upsurge in civil strife have exacerbated the already precarious food situation. Nearly one million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. The food situation in Sudan is also alarming due to continued conflict and population displacement that have resulted in serious food insecurity, especially in Darfur and southern Sudan. Southern Africa There are delays in planting of main season crops due to inadequate rainfall so far in most countries in the subregion. Food insecurity is worsening during this lean period and nearly 12 million people, mainly in Zimbabwe and Malawi, are in need of emergency food assistance. Shortages of key farm inputs such as seed, fertilizer and draft power are reported in Zimbabwe. High inflation coupled with fuel and transport problems are exacerbating food insecurity. In Malawi, markets continue experiencing escalating prices of maize, the main staple food. So far, co mmercial imports and food aid deliveries have been meagre in spite of the significant amounts pledged by international donors. South Africa’s record maize harvest of 12.4 million tonnes is estimated to result in a potential exportable surplus of about 4.66 million tonnes, more than enough to cover the subregion’s import requirements. Western Africa Good harvests are expected in the Sahel, following generally favourable weather conditions throughout the growing season. Howeve r, the severe food crisis that hit the subregion in 2004/05 had serious income, livelihoods and nutrition effects and resulted in depletion of household assets including animals, as well as high levels of indebtedness, notably in Niger and parts of Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania. In spite of the improved food supply situation in these countries, assistance is still needed for income generating and asset reconstitution activities in order to strengthen access to food for vulnerable househ olds. In Côte d’Ivoire, insecurity and the de facto partition of the country continue to disrupt agricultural production and marketing activities. In Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, food assistance continues to be needed for internally displaced people and refugees. Central Africa Crop prospects and food security outlook are unfavourable in several countries due mainly to civil strife and insecurity. Overall crop prospects are favourable in Cameroon, but food insecurit y persists in Chari and Logone Division of the Extreme North which experienced a severe food crisis in 2005. The National Early Warning System in Burundi has warned of serious food insecurity beginning December 2005 due to a prolonged dry spell. A similar weather pattern is expected to affect the 2006 A season crops.
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    Document
    Plan of Action for North Sudan. Emergency response and rehabilitation for food and agriculture August 2010 – August 2012 2010
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    After decades of civil conflict and associated political instability, populations throughout North Sudan have seen their livelihoods and production capacity eroded and their ability to cope with human-induced and recurrent natural disasters (floods, droughts, outbreaks of livestock diseases) worn away. There have been considerable efforts to respond to the protracted crisis, with the international humanitarian response reaching USD 1.3 billion in 2009. Despite this, millions of people continue t o face severe and chronic food insecurity. With between 60 and 80 percent of the working-age population relying on agriculture to meet their food and income needs, the sector’s importance to economic recovery and the consolidation of peace in North Sudan cannot be underestimated. In this Plan of Action (PoA), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) outlines its emergency and rehabilitation programme for North Sudan in 2010–12. It does not include FAO’s long-term develop ment programme, but is designed to complement the Organization’s ongoing development activities, as well as the interventions of United Nations agencies, Government and other partners which aim to mitigate the effects of recurrent crises while addressing their root causes. The programme relies heavily on a disaster risk management approach to the complex situation in North Sudan. This approach focuses on emergency relief, such as replacing lost assets or restoring livelihoods, as well as on earl y efforts as part of risk reduction that protect and sustain livelihoods. Such interventions can often be more effective than those delayed until people are in crisis. Given the complex and protracted nature of the crisis in North Sudan, FAO’s relief and recovery programming is enhanced by interventions that not only restore, but also protect and promote livelihoods in food and agriculture. Thus, the overall purpose of the PoA for North Sudan is to improve preparedness and to make short-term res ponses in food and agriculture more effective. The proposed priorities in this PoA will help FAO, its counterparts and partners to meet shortterm needs in ways that strengthen the resilience of communities and lead to more effective and longer-term recovery. The approach is reflected in the six key areas of focus as proposed in this PoA, based on an analysis of the current situation, the main factors triggering food insecurity and assessments identifying and targeting vulnerable groups. These ar e: (i) dwindling agricultural production; (ii) reduced livestock production and productivity; (iii) the adverse effect of climate change and the conflicts created over the use of scarce natural resources and longer-term issues such as land access; (iv) economic factors that affect the livelihoods of the various groups, as well as the creation of alternative livelihood resources; (v) the need for institutional strengthening; and (vi) coordination of the international community and the assistance provided. The above priorities have been expanded into twelve sectoral programmes that detail activities to be implemented by FAO in North Sudan to achieve expected outcomes and address the specific needs identified in three regions: (i) Greater Darfur (comprising North, South and West Darfur); (ii) the Transitional Areas (Abyei, Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan); and (iii) Eastern Sudan (Gedaref, Kassala and Red Sea states). The total budget for the PoA 2010–2012 is USD 45 056 468. The PoA signa ls FAO’s adoption of a more programmatic approach in its emergency and rehabilitation activities in North Sudan. The document has used a programme cycle management approach to present the situation analysis, planned response and monitoring and evaluation framework. Through this PoA and other efforts, FAO is attempting to build greater programmatic coherence with internal and external partners, in line with national food security plans and related strategy and United Nations system programming fr amework. Fundamentally, this PoA is a dynamic programming tool that may need to be adjusted, according to contingency plans, when and as the food security situation evolves in North Sudan.
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    Pakistan. Initial Floods Emergency Response Plan August 2010 2010
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    Over the course of July and early August 2010, Pakistan experienced the worst monsoon-related floods in living memory. Heavy rainfall, flash floods and riverine floods have devastated large parts of Pakistan since the arrival of seasonal monsoon rains on 22 July. Assessments of losses and damages are ongoing, but estimates place the number of affected people at more than 14 million. Over 1,200 people have died, and at least 288,000 homes have been damaged or destroyed. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province, intense rains during the last week of July and in early August were compounded by the swelling of major rivers due to rainwater surging down from the highland areas. The Pakistan Meteorological Department reports that within one week in late July, KPK received 9,000 millimetres of rainfall - ten times as much as the province normally receives in the course of an entire year. Baluchistan, Pakistan-Administered Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan, also experienced extreme weather, resu lting in widespread losses and damages. As the flood waters began to slowly recede in the northern provinces, rivers continued to swell to unprecedented levels and travel southwards by way of the Indus River. By early August, flood waters breached the river bank in at least eight districts of Punjab, devastating homes, and crops and livestock. At least eight million people in Punjab have been affected by the disaster. The flood wave continues to make its way through the southern province o f Sindh, where millions more are expected to suffer from the combined impact of torrential rains and unprecedented water levels in the rivers. The Government, especially deploying the Armed Forces' logistical capacity, has led the response to the disaster with the deployment of preparedness, rescue and relief actions. Hundreds of thousands have been rescued or preventively evacuated from riverine areas. In light of the devastation caused by the floods and the ongoing threat to lives and live lihoods, the Government (through its National Disaster Management Authority) requested the United Nations agencies and the humanitarian community to prepare an initial floods emergency response plan. Response Plan Key Parameters Affected population 14 million people Baluchistan Federally Administered Tribal Areas Gilgit-Baltistan Affected areas Khyber Pakthunkhwa Pakistan-Administered Kashmir Punjab Sindh Food Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Key sectors for response Health Shelter/Non-Food Items Total funding requested $459 million While the Government of Pakistan (National Disaster Management Authority and the Provincial Disaster Management Authorities) will lead the relief and recovery activities in flood-affected areas, the humanitarian community has been asked to support the response by covering gaps where the needs exceed the government’s response capacity. This means that the humanitarian community will be assisting only a portion of the overall caseload of affected peopl e, focusing on the most severely affected. The Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) expects that critical needs of the severely affected families will include food, clean drinking water and purification materials, emergency health services, tents and shelter kits, cooking sets, mosquito nets, and other non-food items (NFI). Over the medium to long term, the food security situation in the country is likely to be affected by the significant loss of crops and agricultural land. Compounding the deli very of this aid will be the issue of access to areas where destroyed infrastructure has made it impossible for aid to reach people by road. In addition, the security situation in some of the affected areas – especially parts of KPK – remains unpredictable. Considering the size of the area hit by the floods, the number of people who will be found to need assistance is expected to rise as assessments continue and access improves. The combined population of the affected districts is around 43 m illion (out of a total estimated Pakistan population of 168 million). Currently, UN agencies, NGOs and the International Organization for Migration are planning to assist vulnerable flood-affected people in up to seven different geographical areas (Baluchistan, Punjab, Federally Administered Tribal Area, Gilgit Baltistan, KPK, Pakistan-Administered Kashmir, Sindh). The emergency response plan therefore seeks US$460 million1 to enable international partners (UN organizations and non-governme ntal organizations [NGOs]) to support the Government of Pakistan in addressing the needs of flood-affected families for the duration of the immediate relief period. The plan will be revised within 30 days to reflect assessed needs as the situation evolves and will include strategies for assisting people with early recovery from the floods.

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