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Reinforcing Capacities for Stability

Strengthening natural-resource management capacity to restore agriculture in fragile contexts










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    Booklet
    Building forward better initiative: Strengthening natural resources management capacities to revitalize agriculture in fragile contexts
    E-learning nugget report
    2021
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    Conflict and fragility are at the core of some of the biggest challenges today – they are able to hinder development progress and also to reverse any development gains. Environmental factors are rarely, if ever, the sole cause of conflicts. Countries can experience vulnerable conditions at different level of intensity and under different dimensions: from socio-economic, to environmental to human health. Crises generated by global pandemics, such as COVID–19, can have further negative effects on fragile contexts. Natural resources management, in particular land and water resources, also becomes a most critical challenges under such dire situations. The “Strengthening natural resources management capacities to revitalise agriculture in fragile contexts” project stems from the recognition of the importance of investing in human capital in fragile contexts. The project aims at addressing the loss of human capacity provoked by fragility in Libya, Niger and Mali, three countries equally confronted with the need to improve natural resources management, strengthen national institutions and boost human capital to enhance agricultural productivity, improve food security and progress towards the SDGs. The E-learning nugget report provides an overview of the capacity development activities carried out during the first phase of the project and topics addressed. The report illustrates the participants' responses and an elaboration of pre- and post-training assessments.
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    Document
    Information systems boosting food security in South Sudan - GCP/SSD/003/EC 2017
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    The armed conflict that began in December 2013 in South Sudan has resulted in a weakening of government institutions, a breakdown in the provision of basic services, an economic crisis and severe disruption to livelihoods for a majority of the population. The cumulative effect of this has been severe and rising food insecurity across the country. The resultant post-conflict weakening of technical and institutional capacity has significantly eroded the Government’s ability to formulate and implem ent its national food security strategy. Consequently, food security interventions are now informed by Rapid Food Security Assessments and the more robust Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), both of which almost always result in short-term or emergency humanitarian responses. Addressing chronic food insecurity in South Sudan requires a robust food security information system and analysis framework.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Comparative analysis of livelihood recovery in the post-conflict periods – Karamoja and Northern Uganda 2019
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    This paper examines the parallel but separate trajectories of peace-building, recovery and transformation that have occurred over the past 15 years in northern (Acholi and Lango sub-regions) and northeastern (Karamoja sub-region) Uganda. While keeping in mind the key differences in these areas, we highlight the similarities in the nature of recovery, the continuing challenges and the need for external actors to keep in mind the ongoing tensions and vulnerability that could undermine the tenuous peace. The initial peace processes in both northern Uganda and Karamoja were largely top-down in nature, with little participation from the affected populations. In Karamoja, the Ugandan military started a forced disarmament campaign in 2006. This was the second such effort in five years and was top-down and heavy-handed. Although many observers gave it little chance of success, by 2013 large-scale cattle raids were infrequent, and road ambushes were almost non-existent. Critically, local initiatives eventually emerged in parallel to the top-down disarmament efforts. Prime amongst these were local resolutions adopted in 2013–2014 that created a system of compensation for thefts, enforced by “peace committees.” In northern Uganda, a top-down, politically negotiated peace process between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and the Government of Uganda ended two decades of fighting in 2006. The internally displaced person (IDP) camps were disbanded, and thousands of displaced people returned to their rural homes, some because they no other option once assistance in the camps ceased. One of the most important factors in recovery in Karamoja has been the growth of markets. Traders were reluctant to bring wares to the region during the period of insecurity, and hence goods were few and prices high. Today, most trading centres host markets on a weekly basis, and shops have consistent inventories. In northern Uganda, the biggest driver of recovery has been the return of displaced people to their homes and the resumption of farming. By 2011, crop production had resumed its pre-conflict status as the primary livelihood in the region. In both locations, however, engagement in markets is limited, and many people remain economically marginalized. Challenges to recovery and long-term stability are similar across the two locations. Both northern Uganda and Karamoja continue to struggle with food insecurity and malnutrition, despite the massive influx of development funds, improved security and expansion of markets. In northern Uganda, the conflict continues to influence household livelihoods. Households that have a member who experienced war crimes are consistently worse off. These continuing problems with food security and nutrition call into question many assumptions about recovery and development. In particular, the idea that peace will bring a natural bounce in economic and household well-being does not appear to hold up in these cases. Additional structural challenges to recovery in both locations include climate change and environmental degradation, poor governance and corruption, limited opportunities for decent work, livelihood transformation and loss, and conflict over land. These factors reinforce each other and make it extremely difficult for average households to develop sustainable and secure livelihoods. External interventions often fail to take into account the local priorities and realities in these areas. Many programmes are place based or focus on rural areas, but the population is in flux. This is especially true for young people. In addition, while many people are doing much better than they were 15 years ago, others are being pushed out of pastoralism and are struggling to achieve diversified and sustainable livelihoods. Overall, while the recent trajectories of recovery in Karamoja and northern Uganda are remarkably similar, the context, livelihoods and challenges in each location are importantly unique. National actors should not seek to derive combined approaches or policies that lump together these two areas. In both cases, the lived reality, history and experiences of the population should be central to designing appropriate, effective and sustainable responses to the ongoing obstacles to a stable peace and full recovery.

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