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Recommendations of joint FAO/WHO Rift Valley fever outbreaks forecasting models brainstorming workshop

29 September – 1 October 2008








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    Book (series)
    Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Madagascar and potential risks to neighbouring countries 2008
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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, camels and humans. It is a significant zoonosis which may present itself from an uncomplicated influenza-like illness to a haemorrhagic disease with severe liver involvement and ocular or neurological lesions. In animals, RVF may be unapparent in non-pregnant adults, but outbreaks are characterised by the onset of a large number of abortions and high neonatal mortality. The virus (Phlebovirus) is usually transmitted by var ious arthropods. Human infections have also resulted from the bites of infected mosquitoes, most commonly the Aedes mosquito. Mosquitoes from six genera (Aedes, Culex, Mansonia, Anopheles, Coquillettidia and Eretmapodites), including more than 30 species, have been recorded as infected, and some of them are proven to have a role as vectors. Most of these species acquire the infection by biting infected vertebrate animals, but some (specifically Aedes spp.) pass the virus transovarially (vertical transmission). These infected pools of eggs can survive through desiccation for months or years and restart transmission after flooding; then other species (Culex spp.) may be involved as secondary vectors. Vertical transmission (from an infected female mosquito to eggs) explains how the virus can persist for many years or decades between outbreaks.
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    Book (series)
    Possible RVF activity in the Horn of Africa 2006
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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, camels and humans. It is a significant zoonosis which may present itself from an uncomplicated influenza-like illness to a haemorrhagic disease with severe liver involvement and ocular or neurological lesions. In animals, RVF may be unapparent in non-pregnant adults, but outbreaks are characterised by the onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. Transmission to humans may occur through close contact with infected ma terial (slaughtering or manipulation of runts), but the virus (Phlebovirus) is transmitted in animals by various arthropods including 6 mosquito genus (Aedes, Culex, Mansonia, Anopheles, Coquillettidia and Eretmapodites) with more than 30 species of mosquitoes recorded as infected and some of them been proved to have a role as vectors. Most of these species get the infection by biting infected vertebrates, yet some of these (specifically Aedes species) transmit the virus to their eggs. These inf ected pools of eggs can survive through desiccation during months or years and restart the transmission after flooding, and then other species (Culex spp.) may be involved as secondary vectors. This vertical infection explains how the disease can persist between outbreaks.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Real-time monitoring and forecasting of Rift Valley fever in Africa 2019
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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease that severely impacts livelihoods, national and international markets, and human health. RVF is currently limited to Africa and parts of the Near East but has the recognized potential to expand globally. The disease in livestock is spread primarily by mosquitoes and the movement of animals. Clinical disease has been observed in sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, camels and humans. RVF is zoonotic. It can result in widespread febrile illness in humans, associated with severe and sometimes fatal sequelae in under one percent of cases. Outbreaks of RVF are closely associated with climate anomalies such as periods of heavy rains and prolonged flooding, which increase habitat suitability for vector populations, thus influencing the risk of disease emergence, transmission and spread. In this context, Early Warning Systems represent an essential tool providing information on occurring animal health hazards that might evolve into disasters unless early response is undertaken. To enable national authorities to implement measures preventing outbreaks, FAO developed the RVF Monitoring/Early Warning System. This tool has been crucial to successfully forecast hotspots for RVF vector amplification, providing recommendations and early warning messages for countries at risk of RVF outbreaks.

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