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A multi-agency forest fire early warning system for environment and biodiversity preservation in Ethiopia

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Seychelles 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Seychelles is a small island state in the western Indian Ocean, which has developed a high-income economy and eliminated extreme poverty. Agriculture contributes about 2.2% of the country’s gross domestic product with tourism and the fisheries and seafood industries serving as the main pillars of the economy. Agricultural land occupies about 3.4% of the total land area of the country. A large portion of the land area (88.4%) is covered by forest mainly natural and established plantations for commercial purposes. Seychelles is divided into two large agro-climatic zones based on biophysical characteristics- mountainous/forest zone high ground and coastal plateau. In terms of agriculture, two agroecological zones can be distinguished mainly based on soil: upland and sandy soil. Main cropping systems includes food crop-based systems and perennial crop-based systems. Livestock production include goat, pig and chicken. Most crop production is under rainfed or irrigation system. Most farms are under 2 ha with backyard farming done to supplement household food or income. The main crops and products include coconut, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potato, cassava, banana and tuna. Seychelles has the highest rate of overweight and obesity in Africa due to the shift from predominantly unprocessed traditional foods to a more westernised dietary intake consisting mainly of refined and processed foods. most greenhouse gas (GHG) emission come from the energy sector, followed by waste and agriculture which contributes 0.79% of the total. Seychelles has outlined in its nationally determined contributions mitigation actions in the forestry, energy and transport, and waste sectors. In agriculture, actions to mitigate climate change include: promotion of agricultural practises such as agroforestry which would involve mainstreaming strategies to limit deforestation and increase the sink capacity of forests. Challenges for the agricultural sector include (i) deforestation and unsuccessful intensification, (ii) uncontrolled urbanisation, land clearing, bush fires and population pressure, and (iii) high reliance on food imports. Agriculture in Seychelles is limited by a lack of arable land and extreme rainfall patterns and meteorological events like tropical storms, floods and droughts. Climate change poses serious challenges to the country such as uncontrolled economic and social consequences of floods, land degradation, sea-level rise, coastal erosion, declining agricultural yields, health vulnerability, and increased occurrence of drought. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include: crop production under shade houses, inter cropping, use of organic manure and mulch, use of weather information, water control through irrigation, anti-erosion arrangement, windbreak and shelter, and use of climate-adapted seeds. Seychelles has several key institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises. These include government ministries and agency structures of ministries, firms operating in the agricultural sector, academic institutions, specialised laboratories and agricultural research institutes and training centres. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (MEECC) serving as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and nationally designated authority to the Green Climate Fund is responsible for country’s climate change plans and policies. On the agriculture front the ministry of agriculture and fisheries is the key government institution for partnerships for climate-smart agriculture work in the communities as well as for policy and investment related issues through the national agricultural investment plan. A number of csa-related policies and strategies have been developed: National Programme on climate change strategy, national strategy for disaster risk management, national biodiversity strategy and action plan and the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the country’s strategic plan- a definitive document intended to guide land-use management up to the year 2040. A number of projects that foster the development of knowledge and evidence on the effectiveness of climate smart agriculture in improving food security, mitigating climate change and improving the adaptive capacities of production systems and populations in Seychelles have received support from various donors and financing schemes. In addition, AfDB, COMESA, FAO, EU, IFAD, etc. have invested hugely in several aspects of the climate/agricultural sector of Seychelles which also include the development and promotion of csa innovations. From various sources of climate finance available internationally, Seychelles is currently eligible for only a limited number of these and has not wholly accessed major funding instruments such as the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund. The county is a small island nation whose prospects rely heavily on external demand, especially tourism. This poses major challenges for diversification and resilience. Its commitment to csa is relatively new with limited institutions and sources of funding.
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    Policy brief
    Enabling farmer-led ecosystem restoration
    Farmer field schools on forestry and agroforestry
    2023
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    Agricultural expansion is responsible for almost 90 percent of deforestation worldwide, making it a leading driver of biodiversity and habitat loss. Cropland expansion is the main driver, causing almost 50 percent of global deforestation, followed by livestock grazing, which accounts for 38.5 percent. This situation of great concern presents a critical question: How can agriculture continue to feed growing populations while contributing to the urgent restoration of the planet's ecosystems? Climate change mitigation programmes mostly aim to reduce emissions, protect natural forests and afforest abandoned areas. However, it is also important to adequately address the issues of the 2 billion family farmers who cultivate a third of the planet's surface area. About 550 million family farms – 84 percent of which are less than 2 ha – produce a significant share of the world's food. These smallholder farmers are especially vulnerable to climate and environmental change because their livelihoods often depend primarily on agriculture. Over the last 35 years, farmer field schools (FFS) have demonstrated their relevance in answering the growing international call for a re-direction in agriculture. FFS on forestry and agroforestry-related areas have helped rural people to deepen their knowledge of trees and forests, and stabilize and increase food, fibre and energy production while rehabilitating soils and pastures, and restoring biodiversity, shade trees, watersheds and landscapes. It emerged from an FAO stocktaking that FFS partners and programmes across Africa, Asia and Latin America have gained substantial knowledge in advancing small-scale forestry and agroforestry in an inclusive way. FFS on forestry and agroforestry can enable smallholders across the globe to advance the understanding, skills and social organization needed for more regenerative natural resource stewardship.
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    Article
    Effects of land use and land use change on soil properties in northeast rainforest landscapes of Madagascar
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Soil is a major natural resource acting as a key interface between climate and biogeochemical systems. Tavy system or slash-and-burn agriculture influences soil quality and is responsible for releases of carbon stored in the soil. This study aims to evaluate soil properties in each land use and to determine the impact of land use change on these soil properties. The study area was located in an area in the rainforest of northeastern of Madagascar. Soil samples were collected on 135 study sites composed of nine land use types including natural forest, three cropland stages, tree fallow, mixed fallow, grassland and two cash crop plantations (vanilla and coffee). Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS) was used to estimate organic carbon (C org), total nitrogen (N tot), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil texture and pH KCl, while available phosphorus (P Olsen), soil bulk density (BD) and soil carbon stock (SOC) for 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm were estimated with conventional methods. At plot scale and at 0-30 cm, soil in the study area relevant highly variability. Statistical analysis shows that land use change in tavy system contributes significantly to this variability with a p-value <0.001 for P Olsen, C org and N tot, p-value < 0.01 for pH KCl and p-value < 0.05 for CEC and BD. Soil nutrients (P Olsen, C org and N tot) decrease during cultivation period and increase during fallow periods. The CEC and pH KCl were stable but decline rapidly at the grassland stage. SOC for both depths declines over two periods: after the first cropland and the third cycle of cropland after deforestation. The presence of tree vegetation in cash crops (vanilla and coffee) maintains a mean value of soil properties. The results presented in this study will be useful for forest landscape management and will allow the integration of the soil pool in the accounting of the SOC flow in the implementation of REDD+. Keywords: Agriculture, Biodiversity conservation, Climate change, Deforestation and forest degradation, Landscape management ID: 3483094

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