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Genetic test collections of poplars in the south-eastern part of European Russia for biodiversity preservation

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Selection on a drought tolerance and using its results for adaptation of pine forests to climate change
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Forest-steppe region of European Russia belongs to the zone of highly productive pine forests. Relevance of research answers sub-theme of Forestry Congress “forests’ role in addressing global environmental challenges, including climate change and biodiversity conservation”. Conclusions and practical recommendations are based on the results of 34-years monitoring and 12-years self-pollination experience at Scots pine. Main elements of pine seed reproduction systems are self-fertility, proportion of plump seeds and number of seeds per cone. These are genetically determined and environmentally dependent traits with different sensitivity to drought. Their equilibrium state ensures the stability of species seed reproduction system. Drought leads to yield decrease of pine forests, differentiation of trees by drought tolerance degree. Genotypic correction is connected with the unequal contribution of resistant and sensitive trees to the year seed production. To softening the climate change consequences for newly created pine forests, it is recommended to use seeds of drought-tolerant variety of pine ‘Ostrogozhskaya’ (patent No 9187) for reforestation. It is also necessary to draw the seed genotypic composition of optimal years closer to their natural structure of years. For this purpose, it is required to increase the proportion of seeds from drought-tolerant forms by 10-30%. This would make it possible to retain the gene pool of best local populations and increasing their stability in the next generations of forest. Institute has an assortment of drought-resistant forms of Scots pine. Pre- adapted seeds have a sufficient reserve of ecological capacity and a balanced genotypic composition to ensure the genetic diversity and stability of pine forests to climate change. Keywords: Climate change; adaptive selection; Scots pine; seed reproduction systems; drought-tolerant variety ID: 3488667
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    Forest plantations for wood growing in the European north of Russia
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The Russian Federation has accumulated quite a lot of experience in plantation forestry. An urgent issue of returning unused agricultural land to economic circulation can be solved by creating plantation crops on these lands, which contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals on rational forest management, restoration, afforestation and reforestation (SDGs 2, 12, 15 and GFGs 1 and 2). Research on the creation of targeted forest plantations in the European North of Russia was carried out within the framework of a state assignment. Well-grounded conclusions on the choice of species for targeted plantation cultivation were made. Preference should be given to aboriginal species (Scots pine, European spruce). However, one of the promising fast-growing species suitable for the pulp and paper industry in temperate countries is Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loud. var. latifolia S. Wats.), naturally growing in North America. Based on long-term research, the most suitable origins of Lodgepole pine were selected – located in regions of the most northern Canadian origin (Yukon), where it grows at the northern limit of the distribution of forest species. The advantage of Lodgepole pine over local coniferous species was revealed while growing on industrial forest plantations, where, by the age of 40-50 years, it forms 250-300 m3/ha of low-resinous wood, suitable for both sulfate and sulfite pulping and is 70% more productive than local spruce and pine. In the research process, the basic requirements for plantation crops in the European North of Russia were developed, under which plantations justify their purpose. One of the main innovative areas of research is the development of technology for creating forest plantations on lands that have come out of agricultural use. Keywords: Lodgepole pine, boreal forests, plantation ID: 3479164
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    Sustainable tree improvement scheme leading to economical carbon cycling in teak
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The sustainability and efficiency of timber plantations need to be enhanced to meet the global demand for industrial roundwood which is forecasted to increase by 60% by 2030. Tectona grandis (teak) is one of the premier timber species with a lot of promise for short rotation. We demonstrate a potential pipeline to establish a smart plantation for teak using genetically improved propagules, tissue culture, and seed orchards. The primary step in establishing a smart plantation is the production of quality propagules after evaluating the genetic make-up of the parent trees. With the availability of whole-genome sequence and genetic marker information in teak, long-term genetic gain of propagules can be attained through the best use of genetic variance. This objective can be achieved by following an optimal mating scheme such as genomic mating, and selection based on the breeding value of individuals as well as that of groups. Through genomic selection and mating, favorable alleles can be retained in the population to maximize genetic merit and sustain it for multiple generations. This pipeline is also expected to save a lot of time in years while facilitating the establishment of elite plants in the plantation. Through tissue culture, the only route to commercialize teak clones, the genetically improved clones can be distributed for plantation establishment. Multi-trait improvement with the aim of producing trees with more volume, short-rotation, and tolerance to pests and pathogens are considered for genomic selection and mating. With appropriate silvicultural management, the smart plantations established can facilitate carbon cycling in a better and sustainable way. Keywords: Genetic resources, Innovation, Sustainable forest management, Research ID: 3614687

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