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Reducing and Managing the Risks of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease of Cultured Shrimp - TCP/INT/3502










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    Book (series)
    Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease strategy manual 2020
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    The contents of this Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease strategy manual provides information and guidance relevant to the development of policies to respond to outbreaks of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in farmed marine shrimp. The etiologic agents for AHPND are virulent strains of bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related species, which harbor specific toxin genes. While these bacterial species are part of the normal microflora of the marine environment, they may cause substantial mortalities in whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) and giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) cultured in countries in Asia and the Americas. These strains of these Vibrio bacteria secrete a PirABvp binary toxin resulting in sloughing of tubule epithelial cells and dysfunctions of the hepatopancreas in the acute form; mortality can reach 100 percent in affected ponds. Chronic presentation of this disease involves secondary bacterial infection of hepatopancreas and running mortality over the culture cycle. Acute or chronic presentation would greatly depend on the culture conditions. This disease can be considered a toxicosis rather than an infection. Economic losses due to this disease have amounted to over USD 7 billion annually. Further outbreaks of AHPND, particularly in areas that are currently free of the disease, would be expected to experience similar devastating effects on local shrimp producers and the surrounding communities; and thus, there is an urgent need to develop a contingency plan to control and eradicate this disease. This manual includes information on: 1) the nature of AHPND: a brief review of current knowledge in disease etiology, susceptible species and global distribution; 2) diagnosis of disease: a description of gross clinical signs and laboratory methods; 3) prevention and treatment: farm management, the use and development of antibiotics, bacteriophages, probiotics, disease-tolerant shrimp, shrimp immunity and vaccination; 4) epidemiology: AHPND’s geographic distribution, genotype, persistence in the environment, reservoir hosts, modes of transmission, risk factors, and economic impacts; 5) principles of control and eradication: methods for containment, mitigation and eradication of AHPND, and trade and industry considerations; and 6) policy development and implementation: AHPND-specific objectives, options and strategies for eradication and control, education, capacity building, funding, and compensation.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Special Publication on Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND)
    FAO Project TCP/INT/3502 "Reducing and Managing the Risks of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) of Cultured Shrimp
    2018
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    This special volume briefly describe the efforts of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) between 2011 and 2017 in providing assistance to member countries in dealing with Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of penaeid shrimp, through two Technical Cooperation Project (TCP), which lead to the production of this volume of collected papers. The first project TCP/VIE/3304 was an emergency TCP project, Vietnam as recipient country. The second project TCP/INT/3502 was an interregional TCP project with Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and Peru from the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region, and India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Philippines and Sri Lanka from the Asian region as recipient countries. A significant concern to the shrimp aquaculture sector, AHPND will continue to hamper the continuity of food supply, impact livelihoods and reduce national export earnings. This special issue of Asian Fisheries Science on AHPND contains some of the technical papers that were delivered during the Viet Nam, Panama and Bangkok EMS/AHPND events between June 2013 and June 2016. This volume contains at least 21 contributions on a range of topics aimed at continuously updating the knowledge and experiences in dealing with AHPND and related topics from the perspectives of the government, academe and producer sectors.
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    Meeting
    FAO Second International Technical Seminar/Workshop on Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), Bangkok, Thailand 23-25 June 2016
    Bangkok, Thailand 23-25 June 2016
    2017
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    Outbreaks of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), commonly known as "early mortality syndrome" (EMS), caught the entire shrimp industry, the academe and the government sectors by surprise, and it took a long while to unravel its mystery because the disease broke through all biosecurity measures. While the industry has been dealing with vibriosis in all phases of culture for decades, nobody thought that a Vibrio would become an industry game-changer. The di sease calls for a combination of basic, new and innovative strategies in biosecurity and control, and since the pathogen is ubiquitous in the environment, an exclusion strategy may not be possible. Sharing the responsibility among the government, academe and producer sectors has become essential. The "First International Technical Seminar/Workshop: EMS/AHPND - Government, scientist and farmer responses" was held in Panama City from 22-24 June 2015. The "Second International Technical Semi nar/Workshop on AHPND: There is a way forward" was held in Bangkok from 23-25 June 2016. The Bangkok AHPND 2016 is also the 3rd international event organized by FAO on EMS/AHPND; the first one was held in Hanoi, Viet Nam from 25-27 June 2013 (Hanoi EMS/AHPND June 2013, see http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3422e/i3422e00.htm). This document presents the abstracts of presentations delivered in Bangkok in June 2016. < /p>

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