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FAO/ Somalia Plan of Action 2011-2013









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    Document
    FAO Strategy in Somalia & Plan of Action 2011-2015 2017
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    Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world. Torn by a twenty – year long civil war, suffering the absence of a functioning national state, enduring climate-driven and manmade natural disasters and degraded natural recourse base, the country’s human development state is in disarray. Food insecurity and threatened livelihoods are pervasive, especially in the South Central region, the physical and economic infrastructure destroyed, delivery of public goods absent or very limited and massi ve internal and external migration has taken place with large numbers of Internally Displaced Persons. In this very challenging context, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations set off to formulate its Strategy for 2011-2015 that will be operationalized by rolling Plans of Actions. The overarching objective of the FAO Strategy is to improve livelihoods and food security in Somalia. The Strategy is articulated around the following six strategic components which constitute the entry points for engagement in Somalia, identified by a series of participatory problem-identification and analysis workshops and in close consultation with national and external stakeholders. I. Increasing and stabilizing agricultural production and productivity and rural families’ incomes II. Improving profitable and sustainable utilization of livestock resources III. Sustainable fishing for increased incomes of fishing communities and fishermen IV. Managing natural resources for recovery and sustainable use V. Supporting Public/Private Partnerships and local institutions and groups VI. Improving preparedness The Strategy puts a strong emphasis on fighting poverty as poverty is considered as the main driver of the past and current conflicts. Central to this emphasis is the understanding of the socio-economic impact of poverty on the lives of Somali men and women. Agriculture (and livestock)-led growth, complemented by incomegenerating activities and diversification, is the basis on w hich families’ income will be restored and building back better local economies will rest upon. The principle of building back better calls for a linkage at the early stages of humanitarian responses between short-term humanitarian actions and longer-term development interventions. FAO’s cooperation and coordination with bilateral and multilateral organizations working in Somalia will build on linking short-term humanitarian actions to long-term development ones. The Strategy is therefore based on a holistic cooperative approach that calls for the involvement of a variety of actors and partnerships with the private sector and locally based institutions that over the past years have been the main provider of services to local populations. Traditional knowledge has an important role for the Strategy as it devised, throughout Somali history, natural resource management systems and survival strategies that allowed Somalis to cope with risks and shocks. Future interventions will learn from and be built upon traditional coping and survival strategies.
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    Gender in Emergency Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition
    A Compendium of What We Know; and Recommendations on What We Need to Know for Enhanced Gender Analysis
    2012
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    The primary objective of drafting this report is to share the existing recent literature on the traditional and changing gender roles within pastoral, agro-pastoral, riverine, urban and IDP communities in Somaliland, Puntland and South Central. This informs identification of data gaps and recommendations. FSNAU intends to put this information to use in several ways: to strengthen routine FSNAU data collection tools and analysis from a gender perspective and to give strategic input into a planned FSNAU stand-alone gender study on Somalia. The focus of the stand-alone study is to gather gender information on Somalia food security, nutrition and livelihoods that will complement FSNAU’s routine data collection processes. Additionally, the Compendium will provide reference and baseline understanding of the gender trends in Somalia to support the Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition Teams of FSNAU in establishing measurable gender indicators and improve approaches for collecting gender-s pecific information and methodologies, and addressing the existing gender imbalance in enumerators. In collating the information available, the authors of this report, conducted a desk review of the documented literature in Somalia since 2007. A primary source was FSNAU data which has been supplemented by other available sources. The review revealed that there is a wealth of information on traditional and changing gender roles and responsibilities in food security, livelihood and nutrition but t his had not been compiled into a user-friendly central reference. Some of these findings include; • Both men and women make significant but distinct contributions to the household economy. • The past and existing nutrition surveys focus almost entirely on children under five years, pregnant and lactating mothers and women of reproductive age. An understanding of the nutritional status of other vulnerable groups such as older men and women, adolescent girls and chronically sick males and females (of all ages) is lacking. • Somalia men and women are both active in food production: men 54.1 percent and women 45.9 percent (FAO State of Food and Agriculture Report - 2010/2011). Data 2010. • The synergistic male-female partnership in cropping and protein production is under stress due to competition for grazing, land and water. • A disproportionate number of men dying in conflict as well as more male migration had contributed to the increased number of female-headed households (FHHs). There have been resulting changes in intra-household livelihood roles. • Gender-specific security and protection concerns impact internally displaced persons (IDPs) and urban migrants. • Males predominate in camel/cattle production and sale: females sell and process milk. • Females predominate in all aspects of sheep and goat (shoat) production with shared male and female roles in marketing as well as butchering. • There is a gender divide in marketing: men sell for export and women sell for local con sumption. • Cropping involves a mix of gender-specific and shared tasks. • Local vegetable, milk and cereals markets in many areas are dominated by women. • Milling, commercial transport, agents and interlocutors are mainly men. • Women are responsible for erecting and tear-down of shelters, foraging for firewood and fodder. • Presence of a son gives a woman better access to livestock/assets if her husband dies. • Inter-clan conflicts deter men from participating in trade and instead open an opp ortunity for women to undertake more trade, as women are considered peacemakers, with no primary role in inter-clan conflict. • There are indications that women are increasingly using loans as a coping strategy. In some areas as many women as men are getting loans. • More men are entering traditionally female areas of petty trading and house assembly. • An increasing number of women are active in the formal and non-formal sectors and are diversifying how they earn income. Most specifically, wome n are very active in petty trade and increasingly active as casual workers, leaving less time for good parenting. • There is evidence that girls are pulled from school to allow women to earn. In light of the above, the Compendium clearly supports the need for a gender stand-alone survey and encourages immediate action to recruit additional female enumerators to reduce the current gender gap.
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    Project
    Enhancing Land and Water Resources Management in Somaliland and Puntland - GCP/SOM/059/EC 2023
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    The FAO Somalia Water and Land Information Management (SWALIM) programmehas been successfully operating in Somalia for almost 20 years, serving government institutions, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs), development agencies, and United Nations bodies engaged in assisting Somali communities whose lives and livelihoods depend directly on water and land resources. The programmeprovides high quality water and land information, crucial to relief, rehabilitation and development initiatives in the country, to support sustainable water and land resources development and management. The current project, funded by the European Union, is integral to the FAO-SWALIM programmeand was designed specifically to address the requirements of Somaliland and Puntland. The project aimed to strengthen the capacity of all responsible government institutions by creating an Information Management Centre (IMC) able to provide the information and services required to design strategies, plans and infrastructures to improve access to water and sustainable use of land resources, especially for rural communities.

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