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Fisheries and Aquaculture Emergency Response Guidance








Cattermoul, B.; Brown, D. & Poulain, F. (eds). 2014. Fisheries and aquaculture emergency response guidance. Rome, FAO. 167 pp.


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    Book (stand-alone)
    Guidelines for the fisheries and aquaculture sector on damage and needs assessments in emergencies 2013
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    In the last few decades, natural disasters have become more frequent and increasingly destructive. Populations depending on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods are threatened not only by natural hazards but also by human-induced events and other developments beyond their control. Most small-scale fishers and fish workers live in developing countries, and they often face a multitude of problems that increase their vulnerability to hazards, such as pollution, environmental degradation, overexploitation of resources, high levels of accidents at sea and conflicts with industrial fishing operations. Many coastal communities are also particularly vulnerable to hazards resulting from poverty and food insecurity. The particular characteristics of the fisheries sector and the livelihood context of small-scale fishers and fish farmers and their communities need to be clearly understood in order to be able to provide adequate disaster response in an emergency situation. An assessment of disaster impact is essential, not only for supporting the decision-making process before and during the immediate relief efforts, but also to set the basis for longer-term recovery planning. Support to countries and to partners in response to disasters and to emergencies is becoming a greater part of the work of international agencies. In order to improve these responses, the international community has been developing new approaches to disaster preparedness. The “cluster approach”, adopted by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) in 2006, is now used as the main mechanism to ensure effective, coordinated and time-critical emergency response. Within the cluster approach, FAO has been designated as the cluster lead
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Fisheries and aquaculture emergency response guidance
    Review recommendations for best practice
    2013
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    This document contains the proceedings of the FAO workshop entitled “Best practice in responding to emergencies in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors”, held from 15 to 16 March 2012 in Rome, Italy. Experts in the fields of fisheries and aquaculture policy and management, post-harvest practices and trade, fishing operations, enviromnent and of social development and vulnerable groups contributed technical background papers relating to the challenge of responding to emergencies that a ffect the fisheries and aquaculture sector. Populations depending on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods are threatened not only by natural hazards but also by human induced events and other developments beyond their control. Responding to fisheries and aquaculture in an emergency situation presents a range of complex issues. The demand for improved guidance for response and recovery in the fisheries and aquaculture sector was voiced by FAO partners including recently i n a series of consultation meetings relating to disaster risk management held in 2009 and 2010 (FAO, 2010(a), FAO 2010 (b)). In response to this demand, FAO is leading a process to develop guidance for disaster response and recovery in fisheries and aquaculture. The Fisheries and aquaculture emergency response guidance (the Guidance) will compile the best practice in disaster response and recovery for fisheries and aquaculture and in turn help to ensure that disaster response and rec overy for fisheries and aquaculture is consistent with the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The Guidance will support both the saving of lives and the saving of livelihoods through two key strategies: assisting in the identification of the most appropriate fisheries and aquaculture interventions in emergencies; by setting out the best practice and providing guidance notes for these interventions. In the process of developing the best practice and guidance, a team of experts were invited to identify best practice and guidance across a range of technical areas. This workshop was designed to provide the opportunity for discussions around the recommendations for best practice and how these could be presented in the form of guidance. In this report the outcomes from these discussions and presentations have been consolidated into three areas which are: 1. the challenges to implementing best practice in an emergency context; 2. the opportunities presented by the emergency context; and 3. the recommendations for best practice as presented by each of the technical experts. In the closing session of the workshop the challenges of bringing response efforts across the elements of fisheries and aquaculture to create coherent guidance were emphasised as was the need to take advantage of the opportunities presented by an emergency situation to make a contribution to long-term development by “buildingback better”. In supporting the use of the Gui dance the participants emphasised the importance of a programme that enables it to be disseminated in the most effective form for the target users.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Current fisheries and aquaculture policies relevant to RFLP in Viet Nam
    Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme for South and Southeast Asia. (GCP/RAS/237/SPA)
    2010
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    The Fisheries sector is significant contribution to the economy of Vietnam, the export value in 2008 was US$ 4.509 billion. The fisheries and aquaculture sectors have expanded rapidly over the past decade, with aquaculture production rising from 1,202,500 to 2,430,944 tonnes over the period from 2004 to 2008, with more than 1.3 million MT tons of Pangasius and 450,000 MT of brackish and freshwater shrimp and prawn. Fisheries production in 2008 was about 2,134 thousand tons, of which marine captu re contributed 1,937 thousand tons. The natural resources, particularly inshore fisheries are considered to be over-exploited with many high valued fish resources having declined to low levels. The number of vessels has increased continuously without control since 1980. This leads to increased competition in inshore areas. In order to earn a living, fishermen use many destructive fishing gears and bad practices including smaller mesh sizes than required, other destructive fishing methods like el ectricity, poisons, dynamite. As a result, fish of all sizes are captured, including young and fingerling fish. In recent years, the Government of Vietnam has enacted many policies to support the aim of sustainable development, and poverty reduction while protecting natural resources. To reduce fishing pressure in coastal areas, many programs have been promoted by the Government including offshore fisheries, aquaculture development, services on sea development and infrastructure development. The offshore fishing vessels under Government’s offshore fishing program are supported by a credit scheme for boat construction, upgrading of fishing vessels and offshore fishing services. Considered one of the major alternative activities to diversify income for coastal communities, the aquaculture sector has received increasingly strong support under Government of Vietnam policy over the past 20 years. The main focus has been on the establishment of infrastructure for aquaculture development, and to convert saline paddy fields, low lying land, land used for salt production, flooded land and other unproductive land to aquaculture. In addition Government policy has supported fishers and farmers in isolated areas through credit schemes. Micro-finance is conducted through the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD), the Commercial Investment Bank (CIB) and the Bank for Social Policy (BSP). BSP mainly provides subsidized loans to poor households, while VBARD and CIB make l arge loans to enterprises. These policies have supported fishermen investing in pond construction, buying of equipment, seed, feeds and other items. To protect natural resources and bio-diversity the following activities have been implemented: Fishing licensing, control of productivity in specific marine areas, protection of rare and precious species that are in danger of extinction, restocking to enhance breeding population size and density, protection of aquatic habitats, and rehabilitation an d protection of fisheries resources etc. Co-management is considered as a potential tool for sustainable utilization of fisheries resources in Vietnam, particularly for small-scale fisheries. In Vietnam, co-management has recently been included in many policy instruments and pilots are in operation in Vietnam with varying degrees of success. Vietnam has set up and is continuously improving the law, regulations and standards on conditions for food safety, environment and animal health protection , which meets most of the provisions, articles for technical barriers to trade (TBT) and Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) measures on food quality and safety of fish and fishery products, from aquaculture to processing and trading of fish and fishery products. The assurance of food safety needs requires the use of a systematic approach from raw material production, handling, processing, preservation and distribution of fish and fishery product to the customers. Over last 20 years, the Vietnam g overnment has enacted many policies to improve safety and reduce vulnerability for fishing communities such as policies on improving safety for fishermen and fishing boats at sea, support of radio communication devices for owner of fishing boats, support to fishermen to overcome natural risks at sea, support to protecting and reduce the affects of natural calamities at sea, insurance support for vessels and fishers, establish anchorages and storm shelters, and establishment of information networ ks on sea and islands, etc.

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