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EastMed Technical Documents - No 19 Socio-Economic Analysis of Egyptian Fisheries: Options for Improvement









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    Book (stand-alone)
    A Sub-regional Analysis of the Socio-Economic situation of the Eastern Mediterranean Fisheries 2016
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    Within the framework of the FAO EastMed project, a Working Group on the socio-economic analysis of the fisheries sector in the Eastern Mediterranean was conducted in Athens, Greece from the 2-6 of November 2015. The goal of the working group was to contribute to the understanding of the socio-economic situation of fishing fleets in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, with a view to support economic advice in fisheries management. This report is the result of the working group and compares selec ted fisheries socio-economic indicators, including harvesting cost structure and profitability of main fleet segments. During the working group data was compiled from the Eastern Mediterranean, including Cyprus, Egypt, Palestine (Gaza Strip), Greece, Italy (Ionian Sea), Lebanon and Turkey. For the EU countries the data derived from the EU Data Collection Framework (2010/93/EU) was used, while for the non-EU areas the data was derived from the socio-economic surveys which are currently being co nducted within the framework of the FAO EastMed project. Data from Turkey was derived from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The data collected by both the EU and non-EU areas follow a comparable standard methodology, and using these data sets, socio-economic indicators were estimated and compared among countries and fleet segments in the region. The economic performance of 25 fleet segments from the seven areas mentioned above were analyzed and compared for the year 2012. The fisheries secto r in the region including the Black Sea Turkish production, produced a total of 581 thousand tons of seafood with an estimated value of $1.6 billion. The fishing fleet directly employed 80,017 people on a full-time basis working onboard 40,436 vessels. According to the data presented in this report, the value added generated by fisheries made up 0.05% of the total GDP generated in the region, employing less than 1% of the labour force. However, in the coastal communities of the region it repre sented an important source of employment, income and a highly valuable source of animal protein. In terms of profitability, the best performances were showed in Egypt, Lebanon and Italy, while the worst performance was found in Gaza Strip, where the activity was not profitable. In the vast majority of the fleet segments analysed, crew members are paid with a share system where the running costs are subtracted from the revenues before allocating the shares to the crew members and to the owner. Th e salary per fisher compared to the minimum wage of the manufacturing sector, was lower in Gaza and Lebanon, and higher in Egypt. The ratio of energy costs to operating costs showed the highest value in the fleets operating in Gaza, where energy costs are at an unsustainable level, which is detrimental with respect to the salaries of the workers and the remuneration of the investments. The fuel efficiency showed the highest values in Turkey, and the lowest in Italy where all the fleet segments s cored an extremely low value. The comparison of the breakdown of the cost factors showed that labour and energy were in general the primary costs associated with fishing, although their proportion varies among countries, depending on many factors, such as the fleet structure, the harvesting methods and the fuel subsidies/taxes. In general, vessels using active fishing gears (i.e. trawlers) are more dependent on fuel and have the energy costs accounting for a larger proportion of the operational costs while, for the artisanal vessels using passive gears, labour represents the larger proportion of the operational costs. Salaries can absorb as much as half of the total operating costs in small-scale fisheries, with the exceptions of Gaza and Turkey where the labour costs were below 20%.
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    Project
    EastMed Project Technical Document No 16: Socio-economic analysis of the Lebanese fishing fleet 2013
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    This study was implemented after the EastMed 2nd co-ordination meeting on the 5-6th April, Antalya, Turkey (EastMed 2012), where the participants agreed to have a preliminary assessment of the economic situation of the Lebanese fisheries sector. In order to undertake such an assessment an economic survey based on direct interviews was conducted from March to May 2012. The study was split up into two phases. In the first phase the information on the technical characteristics of the most recent fl eet was obtained. This was then followed by the second and main phase which included the socioeconomic sample survey and the socio-economic analysis. The licensed fishing fleet of 2011 was stratified according to the GFCM task I fleet segmentation, after which the population of vessels was randomly sampled and direct interviews based on a questionnaire were conducted. The results showed that in general the Lebanese fishing fleet is making a profit of about 24% of the revenue which is comparable to other fleets in the Mediterranean of similar characteristics. It is a family based fishery, where the owners of the vessels, are directly involved in the fishing activity, with the assistance of family members, there is a non aging fishers’ population, and a low level of education. The income per fisher-owner (7,400 USD) and fisher (3,000 USD) is 20% and 70% respectively less than the national GDP per capita, furthermore a fisher earns about 25% less than the minimum wage of the country. In t his respect the fishers in Lebanon are present in both the lower-middle class (fisher-owners) and the lower class (fisher), where the latter are part of the poorest section of society. The auction market is the main channel used to sell the product, however the whole value chain should be studied in more detail. The salaries of the fishers should be increased by increasing the revenue and this can be accomplished either by increasing the prices or the quantity of production. The latter seems to be a more plausible solution and can be achieved by improving the sustainable exploitation of the stocks and exploring the possibility to exploit new fishing grounds such as the deep water grounds (> 200 m) and offshore waters for large pelagic species.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    A subregional analysis of the socio-economic situation of the eastern Mediterranean fisheries 2020
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    A comparative analysis of socioeconomic indicators of the main fishing fleets in eastern Mediterranean countries was carried out by experts from Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Turkey and Italy during the EastMed Working Group on Fisheries Data Analysis, FAO, Rome, 10 to 14 September 2018. The fisheries production in the subregion in 2016 totalled 449 400 tonnes, with a cumulative value of USD 1.2 billion. The fishing fleet comprised 36 143 vessels which operated for three million days and directly generated a total of 66 383 jobs, calculated on a full-time basis. When comparing the value added per fisheries worker to the same indicator calculated for agriculture, the performance of the fisheries sector was stronger than that of agriculture in Egypt and Turkey. In all the other countries, the value added per agricultural worker was markedly higher than that generated by fisheries. Overall, Turkey had the most profitable fleet segments in the region. In terms of fuel efficiency, Turkey and Lebanon performed well, probably as a result of a number of factors, including the fishing areas and the targeted species. The salary per fisher against the minimum wage showed the best performance in Egypt, where a fisher on average earned double the minimum wage paid by the manufacturing sector. On the other hand, in Palestine the average salary of a fisher was below the minimum wage and dangerously close to the international poverty line. In most cases, the small-scale fleets performed steadily, with some indicators above the national average.

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