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Increasing green cover and carbon accumulation through afforestation of salt affected areas in drylands of India

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Why is artificial afforestation crucial for restoring nature? Studies on the dried bottom of Aral Sea, Kazakhstan
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The Aral Sea, formerly the fourth largest inland lake located in Central Asia, has reduced dramatically as it lost most of its volume due to the large-scale water withdrawal for the cultivation of irrigated crops starting from the 1960s. The desiccated seafloor has become a source of salt, sand, and dust transfer to the adjacent regions, negatively affecting human health and the environment by inhibiting the survival and growth of the vegetation. In response, to stabilize the saline sand blowing from the Aral seabed, multiple domestic and international efforts have been performed to establish vegetation cover with indigenous trees of Haloxylon species as well as other salt- and water-stress tolerant woody and herbaceous plants of the region. As part of the afforestation project supported by the Korea Forest Service (South Korea) in Kazakhstan, field studies examined the impacts of the afforestation on carbon stock and soil quality. The summarized findings are as follows: 1) growth of planted seedlings indicates the measurable sequestration of carbon, which ultimately help to estimate its contribution to climate change mitigation by calculating the atmospheric greenhouse gas reductions; 2) afforestation increased the soil organic matter content which is closely related to soil fertility; 3) afforestation improved soil chemical properties for plants and soil microbes; 4) soil amelioration effects by the afforestation were statistically similar to those by natural vegetation succession. However, the soil conditions in the natural succession area improved after almost 50 years versus about 15 years in the afforested area. This signifies the relative efficiency of afforestation activities and thus helps justify the investments made. Based on the studies, we recommend further research to raise the efficiency of afforestation in arid areas, thereby reinforcing ecosystem restoration and climate change mitigation. Keywords: Aral Sea; afforestation; desertification; climate change; restoration; soil amelioration; carbon stock ID: 3615605
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    Pre-treatment effect on seed germination of calopogonium mucunoides: A promising cover crop for forest land restoration and climate resilience
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Calopogonium mucunoides have been widely used as a pasture legume, cover crop and nitrogen fixing plant in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It reduces soil erosion, controls wind and water erosion; improve soil properties and adapts to wide climatic conditions. The present study investigated the effect of different pre- treatment on germination percent (GP), mean germination time (MGT), germination value (GV), peak value (PV) and germination index (GI) of C. mucunoides. The experiment was conducted at Forest Research Institute, India. Treatment used were hot water soaking for 6 hrs at 40, 60, 80 & 88 ° C; acid scarification using H2SO4 in 1, 3 & 5% concentration; sand scarification, GA3 treatment at 50 & 100ppm; KNO3 at 0.1,1 & 3%. Germination parameters such as GP (ISTA, 2010); MGT (Orchard, 1977); GV (Djavanshir & Pourbeik, 1976); PV (Czabator, 1962), and GI (Timson, 1965) of the species were measured as per the standard methods. Experiment was conducted using CRD in a seed germinator at 25±1 C. ANOVA was performed, and significant treatment means were separated by Duncan's new multiple range tests. Highest GP was observed as 97% at 88° C followed by 87, 86 & 83% at 80, 60 & 40°C hot water treatment respectively. Sand scarification method exhibited the GP of 80%. Lowest MGT was recorded in GA3 (50 & 100ppm) and hot water (88 °C). Maximum GV, PV and GI were recorded in the seed treated with 88° C hot water. The result of ANOVA showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in the effect of GP, MGT and GV using different pre-treatment. Pre-treatment had a significant role in the germination parameters of C. mucunoides. In laboratory, untreated seed produce the GP of 56% while sand scarification and hot water soaking had increase the GP ranges from 80-97% appears to be more promising, cost effective and safest method for large scale cultivation of these cover crops to prevent soil erosion and restore the soil fertility of wastelands of tropical regions of the world. Keywords: Cover crop, pre-treatment, dormancy, germination percent, mean germination time ID: 3487192
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    Propagation and growth from seeds and root segment cuttings of fruit tree-plus Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) in Benin West Africa
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The aim of the present experiment was to assess effectiveness of selected propagation methods, early nursery and field performance of D. mespiliformis (Ebenaceae). For instance, effects of seed pretreatment/root segment cuttings diameter, provenance and soil types on germination and growth vigor of the species was investigated using 144 seeds/root segment; laid in 500 g of three different soil types and soaked/planted in polyethylene bags replicated four times in three treatments and laid in 4×3×3 factorial Completely Randomized Design. Emergence of radicle (days), Seedlings/Shoot Height (cm), number of leaves, and Percentage survival were recorded two weekly for a period of 7 months. Time to event seed germination/shooting data analysis, ANOVA two ways and Generalized Mixed effects Model were used to assess effects of origin, pre treatment/diameter and soil types on germination, shooting and growth of Diospyros mespiliformis. Results indicated that propagation of the species can best be done through seeds and root cuttings. The essay revealed that seeds from woodland, savannah and parkland, sowed in compost and clay and pre treated (boiled water, tegument removed) had the highest germination percentage (69.9-86.67 %), while seeds in the control (no treatment, Inundated Forest and sandy) had very low germination of 17-35 %. No seed treatment showed deficiency in the survival and germination of the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis, while borehole water aided the survival and bring back early (rapid) germination. Regarding RSC, leafy shoots formed percentage varied from 0 % in river sand to 64.6% in clay and compost substrate after 12 weeks. Results reveal also that among the three classes of diameter, shooting height decreases from clay to sandy while the same variable move in inverse order regarding RSC origin. Keywords: Adaptive and integrated management, Biodiversity conservation, Genetic resources, Research, Sustainable forest management ID: 3477094

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