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Nature and Faune, vol. 23, no.1

Forest Management in Africa: Is Wildlife taken into account?







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    Project
    Derivation of diet compositions in the Lesser Antilles Pelagic Ecosystem
    Scientific Basis for Ecosystem-Based Management in the Lesser Antilles Including Interactions with Marine Mammals and Other Top Predators (LAPE)
    2008
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    One of the medium-term objectives of the LAPE project is to enable fishery institutions in the Lesser Antilles to implement ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) management of the pelagic fisheries. An immediate objective of LAPE is the formulation of a food web model of the ecosystem to better understand the effects of fisheries on predator–prey relationships, and of the effects of food web dynamics on fisheries. This report presents average diet compositions of the 29 predator func tional groups, which include seabirds, marine mammals, turtles, fish, squid and zooplankton, in the LAPE model. The data were obtained through field sampling and analysis of stomach contents of a number of species of large and medium sized pelagic fish and marine mammals, as well as through a comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature. Data from 131 studies, of which about 8 percent were from the LAPE area, were used to derive the average diet compositions presented in this report. Despite the scarcity of data from within the LAPE area itself, a reasonable amount of data on same or similar species was available from adjacent areas in the Western Atlantic, including the Caribbean, and other areas mainly in the Atlantic. As expected, the availability of diet information was directly related to the commercial importance of the species. The analysis presented here does not consider differences in diet compositions arising from predator ontogenic changes and size, or seasonal changes in diets. A major problem encountered in a number of the studies was the low level of taxonomic disaggregation of the prey and relatively high proportion of unidentified prey items. Further studies are needed to better quantify diet compositions of the species in the LAPE ecosystem, including non-commercial species that might play an important ecological role.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Sustainable management of Miombo woodlands
    Food security, nutrition and wood energy
    2018
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    The Miombo woodland is a vast African dryland forest ecosystem covering close to 2.7 million km2 across southern Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The woodlands are characterized by the dominance of Brachystegia species, either alone or in association with Julbernardia and Isoberlinia species. It is estimated that the woodlands – through their numerous goods and services which include various non-wood forest products (NWFPs) (e.g. insects, mushrooms, fruits, tubers, medicine, fodder, honey, seeds) and woodfuels, which, for simplicity, will be referred to as non-timber forest products, or NTFPs, throughout the publication – sustain the livelihoods of more than 100 million rural poor and 50 million urban people. The charcoal sector alone employs vast numbers of rural people and offers additional income to many poor rural families. Communities moreover rely directly on the woodlands for food and nutrition. NWFPs add vital micro- and macronutrients to local diets and contribute to diversified food systems, while woodfuel is essential for cooking and sterilizing, thus ensuring proper nutrient absorption and providing clean water for drinking. Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. Generally speaking, it is now accepted that forests managed for both timber and NTFPs retain more biodiversity and resilience than forests managed solely for one aspect, e.g. timber and exotic timber plantations. However, a growing population in high need of agricultural land and unsustainable use and overharvesting of natural resources in parts of the Miombo woodlands, combined with climate change impacts (e.g. drought, fires), leave insufficient time for many trees and associated species to regenerate naturally, posing a serious threat to the products and services of the woodlands, and to the livelihoods depending on them. Compounding the problem and hindering development of the Miombo ecosystem, are: i) lack of an enabling policy environment; ii) unsustainable management; iii) limited willingness and ability to pay for and access to energy-efficiency technologies; iv) inadequate awareness and information, including technical capacity; v) high poverty levels; and vi) limited access to microcredit facilities. With the Committee on World Food Security’s endorsement of the recommendations presented in the High Level Panel of Experts Report on Sustainable Forestry for Food Security and Nutrition in late 2017 – which include promoting multifunctional landscapes, integrated food-forestry systems, and research on associated linkages, among other things – forests and trees are expected to play a greater role in future land-use decisions and related policies. This paper provides an overview of these linkages in the context of the Miombo woodlands, in the hope that future land use, policy decisions and financial investments are shaped to support the contributions of forests and trees to the health and livelihoods of communities in the ecoregion. The following key messages were formulated: • Forests and trees, if managed sustainably, are an important source of resilience for rural people in the Miombo woodlands, supporting households to absorb and recover from climatic or economic calamities and contributing to resolving the underlying causes of food insecurity, undernutrition and poverty by providing nutritious edible products and woodfuel for cooking in addition to conserving biodiversity and water resources, buffering extreme weather conditions and preventing land degradation and desertification. • Current data bases referring to the value of the Miombo must be analysed and used as evidence to improve policy-making. • Miombo woodlands may be dominant (spatially), but they have not been addressed as a single unit but as part of the region’s forests. They form part of the overall forestry strategies and no specific mention in the conventions does not suggest that their importance is underplayed. • The management of Miombo will require some changes in management structures, especially in providing benefits emerging from trade in forest products to local managers. • Local forest managers should play a greater role in allocating resources for feedstock for charcoal production.
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    Article
    Linking conservation of forest genetic resources to species restoration in Western Himalayas
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Himalayas are rich repositories of biodiversity and provide ecosystem goods and services to the communities of the area. Many ecologically and socio-economically important species of the Himalayan region are threatened due to their utilization, deforestation, degradation and climate change. These threaten the sustainability of forest genetic resources and highlight the importance of conservation and sustainable management of these resources. A research program on conservation of Forest Genetic Resources (FGRs) with special focus on the exploration of FGRs of North-West Himalayas has been undertaken with the support from Environment and Forest Ministry of India. Under the programme major activities undertaken are documentation of species populations, their characterization and germplasm storage. The population of the prioritized species are being explored, populations geo-tagged, phenological observations and species associations recorded. Their seeds are collected at maturity, processed, tested for quality and desiccated to safe moisture levels for storage. The seed storage physiology of important Himalayan species like spruce, fir, Acer spp., oaks, Carpinus, Buxus, Fraxinus, pines, rhododendrons, walnut, Corylus, Hippophae, medicinal shrubs/trees, etc. are being studied for chalking out a long-term ex situ conservation programme. Seeds of most of these species have orthodox seeds which after slow desiccation to lowest safe moisture levels are vacuum sealed and stored in seed bank at -180C for periodic regeneration. Thus, ex situ conservation becomes the focal point of gene conservation programme of FGRs of Himalayan Region. Conservation units of species, in nature, that maintain vital genetic diversity for the species survival and adaptive capacity for their sustenance are important. Utilizing the knowledge and information from long-term FGR conservation programmes for chalking out robust species restoration strategies, will only script the success stories. Keywords: Conservation, Forest Genetic Resources, Seeds,field germplasm bank, species restoration ID: 3486837

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