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Planning and piloting watershed rehabilitation for improved water productivity with water harvesting in Jordan









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    Water conservation ponds in Nepal 2011
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    In Nepal, increasingly irregular rainfall patterns have been affecting the livelihoods of Nepalese farmers. Households face water shortages during the pre-monsoon season, between March and May, as well as during post-monsoon and winter, between October and February. In this context, it is essential to guarantee water supply throughout the year in order to reduce vulnerability of farmers caused by erratic rainfall patterns. Water conservation ponds prove a strategic adaptation practice, collecting rain water and replenishing groundwater reserves during the monsoon, as well as preventing excessive erosion and surface runoff down landslides slopes. In addition, the availability of water during dry season is key for traditional rural livelihoods, such as livestock and crop cultivation, as well as in the development of new activities, providing habitat for fish-raising. Additional advantages include the stabilization and re-vegetation of gullies, water availability for cultivation of small-scale fodder, vegetables and fruit trees along the boundaries of the pond, irrigation of kitchen gardens during dry periods and manure from dredged silt.
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    Technical Support to Water and Soil Rehabilitation for Improved Climate Resilience in Golestan, Khouzestan and Lorestan Provinces - TCP/IRA/3703 2022
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    Following spring floods in the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2019 the government requested FAO to assist the Ministry of Agriculture Jahad in the rehabilitation of the three most affected provinces of Lorestan Khouzestan and Golestan The agriculture sector in these provinces had suffered serious losses as a result of damage to land and water resources The recovery process was further impeded by the significant level of soil erosion caused by the flood and rainwaters The impact on soils will have longer term effects on land productivity and yields in these areas and, in some cases, it may be necessary to change land use, resulting in the loss of farms and creating a need for alternative livelihood opportunities for flood affected farmers that are resilient to climate change impacts and natural hazards In Lorestan and Khouzestan provinces, both of which have distinct ecological characteristics, the floods damaged not only farmlands but also agricultural infrastructures Lorestan province is a mountainous region with steeped farmlands and deep valleys The sudden over accumulation of rain destroyed bridges and orchards, and washed away three pumping stations, used to irrigate over 5 000 ha of farms Khouzestan province, on the other hand, is a flat plain with low elevation Three months after the floods, water logging and an increase in land salinity were observed in some areas, particularly in areas that are lower than the surrounding plain.
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    Water accounting in the Jordan River Basin
    WaPOR water accounting reports
    2020
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    The Jordan River Basin is the most important water resource shared between the Middle East countries: Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. Its surface water and groundwater have been highly exploited and fought over throughout history. The diverse climate over its area results in spatially variable precipitation and evapotranspiration, thus, variability of water generation and consumption. To be able to manage the water resources in a sustainable manner, it is important to understand the current state of the water resources. However with limited up-to-date ground observations, in terms of duration, completeness and quality of the hydro-meteorological records it is difficult to draw an appropriate picture of the water resources conditions. The Water Accounting Plus (WA+) system designed by IHE Delft with its partners FAO and IWMI has been applied to gain full insights into the state of the water resources in the basin.

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