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Morocco - Investing in collective action: opportunities in agrifood cooperatives














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    Book (series)
    Egypt: Review of the agrifood cooperative sector. Country highlights 2019
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    The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of how cooperatives can contribute to the development of the agricultural sector and rural areas in Egypt and outline enabling policy changes and areas of investment. The primary audience is policy decision-makers, development partners and potential institutional investors in the agricultural sector in Egypt. This study was undertaken within the framework of the strategic objectives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the commitment of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) to Egypt as part of its overall Southern and Eastern Mediterranean strategy. Both organizations have decided to review the status of producers’ organizations (POs), in particular agricultural cooperatives (ACs), in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    International Investments in Agriculture in the Near East
    Evidence from Egypt, Morocco and Sudan
    2011
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    The food crisis of 2007- 2008 sparked an increase in investment flows to agriculture in the Near East, particularly to countries rich in water and land resources, such as Sudan. These investments have continued to increase during 2009 - 2010, as food prices continue to remain high. This publication was motivated by this surge in international investments in agriculture. and the-. need to answer some key policy questions, through and a brief review of international investments in the region, and an exploratory analysis of the issues and challenges in the policy arena. Three case studies in Egypt, Morocco and Sudan were commissioned by the FAO Regional Office for the Near East. The purpose was to (i) identify past and current investment trends in terms of the actors involved, modalities, size and impact (to the extent that information is available), (ii) assess these investments in the context of the region and its food security challenges, and (iii) identify areas to be addressed by pol icy makers to ensure food security in the long run and provide a starting point to evaluate investments for timely and targeted policy measures. While information on international investments in agriculture is not readily available, the case studies provide an overall picture of agriculture investments, specifically focusing on foreign direct investments. The share of international investments to agriculture has traditionally been very low in the region. With a an average share of 1- 2% of total FDI, this investment is mostly concentrated in sectors other than primary agriculture. In the past few years, investments in agriculture have grown remarkably; however, information on their allocation and impact is incomplete and fast changing. Impacts of agricultural investments in the past have been mixed and concentrated in capital and resource intensive activities which are largely supported by the public sector. Sudan has attracted resource seeking investments, whereas Morocco and Egypt co ntinue to be investment destinations for market seeking investments, in the food processing and fruit and vegetable production sectors. The involvement of the private sector in investment in agriculture is growing but there is still a strong government presence in supporting these investments, often through direct and indirect subsidies in most countries. The historical experience of the region is instructive in terms of improving the efficiency of future investments in agriculture as well as en suring sustainable outcomes. Some of the salient features of international investments in agriculture can be summarized as follows: • Intra-regional investment in agriculture constitutes the bulk of the international investment in agriculture in the Near East. • Countries such as Egypt and Sudan are the largest recipients of recent international investments in food and agriculture, mostly from the Gulf States but also from other countries such as China and South Korea. Other countries in the reg ion are also heavily investing in agriculture and food sectors overseas, and beyond the Near East, including in Asia and Latin America. • Whether investor or host country, the common driving factor for international investments in agriculture in the region is food security concerns. The investment policies of most countries in the region are geared toward attracting investments. They are therefore relatively open and do not differentiate between the different sectors or the different types of ac tivities within agriculture. Agriculture, as an investment category, has been growing rapidly in the last three years, and most countries (especially the poorest) have not yet had the time to align their investment strategies with their national food security objectives. Given the rapid growth in agricultural investment, caution needs to be exercised by investor and host country governments, as well as private investors, to develop sustainable solutions and incorporate a long term perspective to support healthy and profitable investments. Given the diverse national and household food security concerns and resource availabilities, a regional focus on food security may be needed to better formulate and harmonize policies as well as tap into opportunities. The potential capacity for staple food production has its limits, but income generating opportunities are ample. A mix of investments geared at food processing, food service, and other sectors linked to agriculture, could also provide a lternative income opportunities for rural people, as well as increased employment opportunities in urban areas. Within this context, regional initiatives could be very promising in promoting food security in the longer term.
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    Project
    Support to the Planting gor Food and Jobs Campaign - TCP/GHA/3607 2020
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    Dramatic changes are taking place in farming worldwide as a result of globalization, liberalization and rapid urbanization. Farmers are intensifying production and diversifying their farm enterprises in order to improve their livelihoods. Technical knowledge is no longer enough: to be competitive and take advantage of new marketing opportunities, farmers need to adapt their farming practices and the crops they produce in response to market shifts. While Ghana is a food-deficit country, there are many opportunities in the agricultural sector for employing the country’s large youth population and increasing domestic production of marketable, nutritious foods. Attaining food security through self-sufficiency has been a policy priority in Ghana. The country’s long-term agricultural sector-specific policy objectives are elaborated in Ghana’s Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP I and II). The Medium-Term Agriculture Sector Investment Plan (METASIP I and II) for implementation of FASDEP I and II provides a roadmap for the implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) in Ghana. This plan focuses on investments for addressing constraints on productivity, market access and sustainable production. The Government, with support from FAO, recently validated the policy matrices for METASIP I and II, and developed a roadmap for METASIP III (2018-2021) known as “Investing for Food and Jobs”. The Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ) Campaign represents a flagship programme under METASIP III aimed at ensuring sustainability. Increasing farmers’ incomes by taking advantage of market opportunities and enhancing efficiencies requires capacity building to improve farmers’ decision-making and business skills in this rapidly changing environment. This includes better farm management skills for market competitiveness. In order to support them and create an enabling environment for agricultural investment, decision makers need to access quality data that can assist them in decision-making and planning. Ghana’s Government has prioritized the attainment of food security through self-sufficiency for many years. However, Ghana’s agricultural population is aging, and despite high youth unemployment, the sector has failed to attract younger people. At the same time, changes in the global trade environment are widening the gap between the needs of private agribusinesses and existing labour supplies. This gap represents an opportunity for unemployed youth to enter the agricultural sector by utilizing new approaches and market opportunities to earn decent incomes.

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