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Improving food security for households in Afghanistan - GCP/AFG/072/LUX









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    Gender in Emergency Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition
    A Compendium of What We Know; and Recommendations on What We Need to Know for Enhanced Gender Analysis
    2012
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    The primary objective of drafting this report is to share the existing recent literature on the traditional and changing gender roles within pastoral, agro-pastoral, riverine, urban and IDP communities in Somaliland, Puntland and South Central. This informs identification of data gaps and recommendations. FSNAU intends to put this information to use in several ways: to strengthen routine FSNAU data collection tools and analysis from a gender perspective and to give strategic input into a planned FSNAU stand-alone gender study on Somalia. The focus of the stand-alone study is to gather gender information on Somalia food security, nutrition and livelihoods that will complement FSNAU’s routine data collection processes. Additionally, the Compendium will provide reference and baseline understanding of the gender trends in Somalia to support the Food Security, Livelihoods and Nutrition Teams of FSNAU in establishing measurable gender indicators and improve approaches for collecting gender-s pecific information and methodologies, and addressing the existing gender imbalance in enumerators. In collating the information available, the authors of this report, conducted a desk review of the documented literature in Somalia since 2007. A primary source was FSNAU data which has been supplemented by other available sources. The review revealed that there is a wealth of information on traditional and changing gender roles and responsibilities in food security, livelihood and nutrition but t his had not been compiled into a user-friendly central reference. Some of these findings include; • Both men and women make significant but distinct contributions to the household economy. • The past and existing nutrition surveys focus almost entirely on children under five years, pregnant and lactating mothers and women of reproductive age. An understanding of the nutritional status of other vulnerable groups such as older men and women, adolescent girls and chronically sick males and females (of all ages) is lacking. • Somalia men and women are both active in food production: men 54.1 percent and women 45.9 percent (FAO State of Food and Agriculture Report - 2010/2011). Data 2010. • The synergistic male-female partnership in cropping and protein production is under stress due to competition for grazing, land and water. • A disproportionate number of men dying in conflict as well as more male migration had contributed to the increased number of female-headed households (FHHs). There have been resulting changes in intra-household livelihood roles. • Gender-specific security and protection concerns impact internally displaced persons (IDPs) and urban migrants. • Males predominate in camel/cattle production and sale: females sell and process milk. • Females predominate in all aspects of sheep and goat (shoat) production with shared male and female roles in marketing as well as butchering. • There is a gender divide in marketing: men sell for export and women sell for local con sumption. • Cropping involves a mix of gender-specific and shared tasks. • Local vegetable, milk and cereals markets in many areas are dominated by women. • Milling, commercial transport, agents and interlocutors are mainly men. • Women are responsible for erecting and tear-down of shelters, foraging for firewood and fodder. • Presence of a son gives a woman better access to livestock/assets if her husband dies. • Inter-clan conflicts deter men from participating in trade and instead open an opp ortunity for women to undertake more trade, as women are considered peacemakers, with no primary role in inter-clan conflict. • There are indications that women are increasingly using loans as a coping strategy. In some areas as many women as men are getting loans. • More men are entering traditionally female areas of petty trading and house assembly. • An increasing number of women are active in the formal and non-formal sectors and are diversifying how they earn income. Most specifically, wome n are very active in petty trade and increasingly active as casual workers, leaving less time for good parenting. • There is evidence that girls are pulled from school to allow women to earn. In light of the above, the Compendium clearly supports the need for a gender stand-alone survey and encourages immediate action to recruit additional female enumerators to reduce the current gender gap.
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    Improving food security for households in Afghanistan - GCP/AFG/072/LUX 2017
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    In spite of significant reconstruction efforts, Afghanistan remains ravaged by three decades of devastating war, natural disasters and population growth, which have contributed to rampant poverty and food insecurity. Although almost half of rural households own and cultivate some land and more than 64 percent own some sort of livestock or poultry, yields are far below the regional averages, while agricultural production is at the mercy of climatic conditions. The transformation of traditional subsistence production systems into a dynamic, modern agricultural sector depends on the widespread introduction and use of new knowledge, technologies and practices.
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    Implementing the food and nutrition security strategy in Afghanistan - GCP/AFG/091/GER 2017
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    Food and nutrition insecurity is a severe and widespread problem in Afghanistan. About 30 percent of the population is food insecure, and 40 percent of Afghan children under five years of age suffer from chronic undernutrition. The majority of vulnerable and food insecure people live in rural areas, and depend on agriculture and livestock as their main sources of livelihood. The Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) developed a strategy to address the critical issues of food a nd nutrition security. However, its institutional structures and technical and management capacities need strengthening in order to effectively implement this strategy.

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