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The hatchery culture of bivalves: a practical manual











Helm, M.M.; Bourne, N.; Lovatelli, A. (comp./ed.) Hatchery culture of bivalves. A practical manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 471. Rome, FAO. 2004. 177p.



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    Hatchery culture of bivalves - A practical manual (chinese version) 2006
    This manual is a synthesis of current methodologies pertinent to the intensive hatchery culture of bivalve molluscs. It encompasses similarities and differences in approach in rearing clams, oysters and scallops in different climatic zones. All aspects of the culture process are described together with basic considerations in choosing a site for hatchery development and in the design of a suitable facility. The content also includes the post-hatchery handling of larvae in remote setting and also of spat in both land- and sea-based nurseries. It is intended to assist both technicians entering this field as well as entrepreneurs researching investment opportunities in bivalve culture.
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    Book (series)
    Hatchery-based seed production of the Japanese scallop, Mizuhopecten yessoensis 2022
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    This guide is intended as a standalone practical manual for the culture of the Japanese or Yesso scallop, Mizuhopecten yessoensis. It is written for hatchery staff as a reference for daily operating procedures and for developing a site-specific and resource-specific seed production strategy. To that end, the whole production cycle is addressed, from broodstock conditioning to transport of seed to the farm. It is the aquaculturist’s decision as to whether all stages are required to achieve the target production in a given site and hatchery facility. Standard and more recent emerging techniques are included where possible, for the equal benefit of low and high technological operations. The manual starts with a brief overview of the anatomy and morphology of the scallop and describes the main organs of the adult specimen and the stages of its life cycle; the anticipated development time between each stage throughout its culture is added for the aquaculturist’s benefit. This is followed by a chapter on the culture of live microalgae for food; different approaches to culturing large-scale microalgae are given, including traditional batch culture to the more recent newly designed photobioreactors. Protocols are given from stock to intermediate microalgal cultures for the inoculation of large-scale vessels. The integration of probiotic bacteria as an alternative to standard antimicrobial drugs is described in a separate chapter; this is a critical component of this manual as it is a current and important shift in sustaining optimal larval and spat performance. The need for biosecurity in a full cycle hatchery operation is emphasized and conceptually illustrated. The culture protocols for scallops start with the holding and conditioning of broodstock; assessments of the gametogenic stage, the manipulation of holding temperature to maintain and/or enhance gametogenesis and food requirements are all discussed to ensure the supply of broodstock for spawning when needed. Larval culture is one of the longest chapter of this manual and describes rearing in both static and flow-through systems with the expected growth and survival rate for the Japanese scallop. Post-larval culture in the nursery chapter is divided into early post-set up to Day-14, rearing of 1 mm spat and raising seed up to 5 mm or more in a land-based environment. The final chapter discusses different strategies affecting the time and size at which seed are transferred out of the nursery facility to either intermediate outdoor nurseries or to the farm sites.
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    Project
    Enhancing Coastal Livelihoods and Food Security in the Provinces of South Hamgyon and Kangwon in DPR Korea through Improved Marine Bivalve Aquaculture Practices - TCP/DRK/3706 2022
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    Bivalve production in the targeted areas increased overall (although the exact percentage increase had yet to be measured at the time of reporting), and 150 000 scallop seeds measuring between four and five mm were produced through the acquisition of improved technical skills The project design included three outputs Under the first output, improved bivalve culture systems were implemented in two targeted aquaculture cooperative demonstration farms, covering a coastal zone of 30 ha Output two was partially achieved Its primary focus was to introduce advanced post harvest management practices and value addition methods on the two targeted farms however, due to the COVID 19 related travel restrictions, field visits and consultations with international experts could not take place as originally planned That said, the international consultants produced three technical manuals (one on Pacific oyster farming, one on mussel farming and one on scallop hatchery seed production) that were provided to technical staff of the Ministry of Fisheries MoFi The MoFi then transmitted the procedures and protocols contained in the manuals to the Hongwon Mariculture Cooperative and Songdo Fisheries and Mariculture Cooperative The final output, which envisaged the training of 175 farmers and 25 fishery/aquaculture development planners on bivalve production, the operation and maintenance of culture units, harvest and post harvest management and value addition, was only partially achieved as well, owing to the travel restrictions The manuals are expected to serve as the basis for further training in these areas.

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