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Observation of bioindicators as early warning systems to mitigate the impacts of frosts and droughts in Bolivia








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    After-Action Review of the Early Warning Messaging Activity under the Scaling up Early Warning and Anticipatory Action for Agriculture and Food Security Project (EWAA) in Zimbabwe 2022
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    Early warning messaging has been crucial to protect smallholder farmers’ crops, livestock and assets, as well as livelihoods. Collaborating with the government of Zimbabwe’s Meteorological Services department which provided updated forecasts for the targeted areas on a regular basis, and FAO facilitated the broadcast of these messages through various formats managed by the Ntepe-Manama Community Radio station. During the 2021/22 agricultural season, farmers and households in the target wards received early warning and weather forecast messages twice a week to coincide with the Meteorological Services Department’s three-day forecasting period. Early warning and short-range forecasting information was broadcast to farmers in Gwanda, parts of Matobo and parts of Beitbridge. The early warning messages were transmitted through the four local languages that are indigenous to the district; Sotho, Babirwa, Venda and Ndebele. This ensured that weather messages were simple enough for better understanding by the recipients. The messages disseminated provided information on the weather conditions for the following three days. When extreme weather conditions were predicted, early warning information and corresponding advisories were broadcast to enable farmers to activate their coping strategies, and implement other pre-emptive actions to protect crops, livestock and assets. An After-Action Review process was conducted to assess the impact of the messaging on the targeted farmers and derive recommendations for further improvement of the activity. The outcome showed that the messages influenced the farmers' short-term farming choices.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Seychelles 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Seychelles is a small island state in the western Indian Ocean, which has developed a high-income economy and eliminated extreme poverty. Agriculture contributes about 2.2% of the country’s gross domestic product with tourism and the fisheries and seafood industries serving as the main pillars of the economy. Agricultural land occupies about 3.4% of the total land area of the country. A large portion of the land area (88.4%) is covered by forest mainly natural and established plantations for commercial purposes. Seychelles is divided into two large agro-climatic zones based on biophysical characteristics- mountainous/forest zone high ground and coastal plateau. In terms of agriculture, two agroecological zones can be distinguished mainly based on soil: upland and sandy soil. Main cropping systems includes food crop-based systems and perennial crop-based systems. Livestock production include goat, pig and chicken. Most crop production is under rainfed or irrigation system. Most farms are under 2 ha with backyard farming done to supplement household food or income. The main crops and products include coconut, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potato, cassava, banana and tuna. Seychelles has the highest rate of overweight and obesity in Africa due to the shift from predominantly unprocessed traditional foods to a more westernised dietary intake consisting mainly of refined and processed foods. most greenhouse gas (GHG) emission come from the energy sector, followed by waste and agriculture which contributes 0.79% of the total. Seychelles has outlined in its nationally determined contributions mitigation actions in the forestry, energy and transport, and waste sectors. In agriculture, actions to mitigate climate change include: promotion of agricultural practises such as agroforestry which would involve mainstreaming strategies to limit deforestation and increase the sink capacity of forests. Challenges for the agricultural sector include (i) deforestation and unsuccessful intensification, (ii) uncontrolled urbanisation, land clearing, bush fires and population pressure, and (iii) high reliance on food imports. Agriculture in Seychelles is limited by a lack of arable land and extreme rainfall patterns and meteorological events like tropical storms, floods and droughts. Climate change poses serious challenges to the country such as uncontrolled economic and social consequences of floods, land degradation, sea-level rise, coastal erosion, declining agricultural yields, health vulnerability, and increased occurrence of drought. CSA technologies and practises present opportunities for addressing climate change challenges as well as for economic growth and development of the agriculture sector. Identified CSA practises in use in the country include: crop production under shade houses, inter cropping, use of organic manure and mulch, use of weather information, water control through irrigation, anti-erosion arrangement, windbreak and shelter, and use of climate-adapted seeds. Seychelles has several key institutions and policies aimed at supporting and increasing agriculture productivity and advancing CSA practises. These include government ministries and agency structures of ministries, firms operating in the agricultural sector, academic institutions, specialised laboratories and agricultural research institutes and training centres. The Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (MEECC) serving as the country’s UNFCCC focal point and nationally designated authority to the Green Climate Fund is responsible for country’s climate change plans and policies. On the agriculture front the ministry of agriculture and fisheries is the key government institution for partnerships for climate-smart agriculture work in the communities as well as for policy and investment related issues through the national agricultural investment plan. A number of csa-related policies and strategies have been developed: National Programme on climate change strategy, national strategy for disaster risk management, national biodiversity strategy and action plan and the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the country’s strategic plan- a definitive document intended to guide land-use management up to the year 2040. A number of projects that foster the development of knowledge and evidence on the effectiveness of climate smart agriculture in improving food security, mitigating climate change and improving the adaptive capacities of production systems and populations in Seychelles have received support from various donors and financing schemes. In addition, AfDB, COMESA, FAO, EU, IFAD, etc. have invested hugely in several aspects of the climate/agricultural sector of Seychelles which also include the development and promotion of csa innovations. From various sources of climate finance available internationally, Seychelles is currently eligible for only a limited number of these and has not wholly accessed major funding instruments such as the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund. The county is a small island nation whose prospects rely heavily on external demand, especially tourism. This poses major challenges for diversification and resilience. Its commitment to csa is relatively new with limited institutions and sources of funding.
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    Journal, magazine, bulletin
    FAO Food Chain Crisis Early Warning Bulletin 2018
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    During the period July to September 2018, Food Chain Crisis (FCC) threats are expected to occur in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania where they can persist within a country, spread to neighboring countries, remain latent, or re-emerge/amplify. The dynamics and likelihood of occurrence of FCC threats depend on a number of risk factors or drivers. These include agro-ecological factors (e.g. intensive farming systems, deforestation, overgrazing, etc.), climate change (e.g. droughts, extreme weather events, flooding, heavy rains, heat waves, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation -ENSO, changes in vegetation cover, water temperature, etc.), human behaviour (e.g. cultural practices, conflicts and civil insecurity, trade, etc.) and natural disasters. In relation to food security, and according to the last “Crop prospects and food situation” report (April-June 2018), FAO estimates that, globally, 39 countries (31 in Africa, seven in Asia, and one in Americas) are in need of external assistance for food. Persisting conflicts continue to be the dominant factor driving high levels of severe food insecurity. Weather shocks have also adversely impacted food availability and access. FCC threats can compound food insecurity in fragile countries stricken by weather shocks and conflicts.

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