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Agroforestry: A panacea to energy production and food security in Nigeria

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Article
    Modelling the growing space of parkia biglobosa benth for agroforestry project
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Parkia biglobosa is a leguminous tree that plays a significant role in the socio-economic wellbeing of people especially in rural communities of sub-Saharan Africa. The trees are maintained on farms by farmers because of the benefits derived from them. Its inclusion in agroforestry practice is often limited due to inadequate information on appropriate growing space or planting distance. Agroforestry practice often requires the determination of planting distance in the form of alleys to reduce the effect of canopy cover. Therefore, in this study, the growing space requirement of P. biglobosa for agroforestry project was determined. The dataset used consists of 288 trees measured from the P. Biglobosa plantation in Markurdi, Nigeria. Quantile egression technique was used to establish a simple relationship between tree crown width (Cw) and diameter at breast height (dbh) of the species. This relationship was used to estimate the growing space required for the establishment of agroforestry project. The limiting density and stand basal area were also estimated. The result shows that the relationship of the form: Cw = 2.674 + 0.095dbh, explained 56.2% of the variation in crown width with a mean bias of 0.985. Also, the study shows e.g., that P. biglobosa trees of 10 cm dbh would each require 3.2 m of growing space with limiting density and basal area of about 982 trees/ha and 6.06 m2 /ha, respectively. Furthermore, trees of 50 cm dbh would each require 6.6 m of growing space with a limiting density and basal area of about 232 trees/ha and 35.86 m2 /ha, respectively. In agroforestry practice, alleys are predetermined from the onset of the project, and as such, information from this study could be used to determine the planting distance and the limiting density of the species. Thus, arable crops can be integrated between the alleys. Keywords: Crown width; quantile regression; limiting density; stand basal area; Parkia biglobosa ID: 3474105
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Evidence-based assessment of the sustainability and replicability of integrated foodenergy systems
    A guidance document
    2014
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    Bioenergy when managed sustainably and efficiently can be an alternative energy source that helps reduce energy access problems. Rural and urban communities can benefit from increased access to energy, and therefore improved food security when bioenergy feedstock is produced guided by principles of sustainable production intensification and energy efficiency improvements are made by applying agro-ecological practices and locally adapted technologies.. To mitigate the risks of bioenergy production threatening food security and to harness the potential benefits of bioenergy productionFAO recommends appling good practices of bioenergy production from the onset. The production of bioenergy in Integrated Food-Energy Systems (IFES) is one of such good practices since these systems meet both food and energy demands.This publication presents an analytical framework which serves to screen different IFES options systematically and helps to define which IFES sy stems are sustainable and replicable. In concrete terms, this framework is envisioned to be a guidance document that allows its user to assess which factors make an IFES truly sustainable and which factors need to be considered when replicating such a system - be it a pilot project, a business innovation or a research experiment. Furthermore, it helps to systematically describe the potential contribution of IFES to sustainable agriculture and the growing bioeconomy, and to raise aw areness among decision-makers about which factors can facilitate the replication of such innovative projects.While the concept of IFES builds on the principles of sustainable intensification and the ecosystem approach, it stresses the fact that the diversification of crop and livestock species can lead to a sustainable production of both food and energy feedstock, as long as relevant practices and technologies are locally devised and adapted. It further emphasises that energy efficiency can be reached in these systems when applying sound agro-ecological practices and locally adapted technologies. This can be observed in many smallholder farming systems around the world, for example, agroforestry or intercropping systems that provide food, on the one hand, and generate crop residues and woody biomass for cooking or heating, on the other. However, far less common are those IFES that build on a sustainable production of food and energy feedstock and c ombine it with renewable energy technologies, that eases access to modern energy. Many pilot studies, research projects and business innovations suggest that food and energy for fuel, heat and electricity can be sustainably produced in such foodenergy systems. Yet the supporting evidence to bring these types of IFES to scale is still scarce and projects often remain single islands of success.
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    Booklet
    Climate-Smart Agriculture in Borno state of Nigeria 2019
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    The climate smart agriculture (CSA) concept reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development and climate responsiveness. It aims to achieve food security and broader development goals under a changing climate and increasing food demand. CSA initiatives sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce/remove greenhouse gases (GHGs), and require planning to address trade-offs and synergies between three pillars: productivity, adaptation and mitigation. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective, and equitable food systems that address challenges in environment, social, and economic dimensions across productive landscapes. The country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline created to initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. The economy of Borno State is largely agrarian, with livestock husbandry, crop production and fishing on the Lake Chad dominating the economic activities of the population. Agriculture is mainly subsistent, with over 70% of her population depending on it directly or indirectly for their livelihoods. It provides the bulk of employment, income, food, and clothing for the rapidly growing population as well as supplying raw materials for agro-based industries. In Borno State, agriculture contributes up to 65% of the State’s Gross Domestic Product. Major cash crops are cotton, sesame and groundnuts while food crops include maize, yam, cassava, sorghum, cowpea, sorghum, millet, sweet potato and rice. Cattle and other livestock also have enormous value chain growth opportunities. With the recent insecurity that worst hit Borno state, food production (crop/animal and fishing) contribute to only 5.9 % of the food needs of the state. Virtually, 94% of food consumed in Borno are imported either in form of credit or gift from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), world food program (WFP), and civil societies among others. Declining soil fertility, climate change, low farm input lets, limited investment and poor infrastructure continue to hamper agricultural productivity and developments in the agricultural sector. The Borno state and indeed Nigeria has made efforts to enhance the resilience of the agriculture sector to climate change. The ongoing development of the Agricultural Promotion Policy (APP), the development of a National Policy on Climate Change and Response Strategy (NPCCRS) and the numerous plans, strategies and policy enabling environment are thought to set the State on the path towards sustainable development under the realities of a changing and varying climate. Some CSA practices (e.g. intercropping/multiple cropping, agroforestry, conservation agriculture etc.) are quite widespread and their proliferation has been facilitated by ease of adoption, and multiple benefits such as food, income diversification and improved resilience. Although there are a wide range of organizations conducting CSA-related work, most have focused largely on food security, environmental management and adaptation. There is the need to also integrate mitigation into the State’s climate-smart agriculture development efforts. In addition, off-farm services related to CSA need to be enhanced, including weather-smart and market-smart services. Funding for CSA is limited in the State and Nigeria in general, however there are opportunities to access and utilize international climate finance from sources such as the Green Climate Fund and Global Environment Facility and through readiness and capacity building programmes. At the national level, the National Agricultural Resilience in Nigeria, an arm of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development which targets reforestation, agriculture and livestock, is a useful mechanism for directing climate finance to CSA-related activities. Others are the fund set aside for the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan for Climate Change in Nigeria (NASPA-CCN) which can benefit CSA-related activities the Borno State.

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