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The role of genetic resources for food and agriculture in adaptation to and mitigation of climate change











FAO. 2022. The role of genetic resources for food and agriculture in adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome.




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    Scoping review on the role of social protection in facilitating climate change adaptation and mitigation for economic inclusion among rural populations 2024
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    Rural populations, especially small-scale producers and women, are disproportionately impacted by climate change since their livelihoods depend largely on natural resources and weather patterns. This paper reviews the available evidence on the role of social protection programmes in facilitating climate change adaptation and mitigation, with a specific emphasis on economic inclusion for agriculture-dependent households. The review also presents available evidence on the ability of social protection programmes to contribute to mitigation targets through reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and in easing the impact of climate mitigation policies on price inflation, job losses and income insecurity.The review underscores the importance of a systems approach. Both climate policies and social protection policies should incorporate specific elements to effectively complement each other.
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    Border and related measures in the context of adaptation and mitigation to climate change
    The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO): Background paper
    2018
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    Although international trade is not specifically mentioned in the Paris Climate Agreement, trade can play a facilitating role in achieving the mitigation and adaptation objectives of signatories to the Agreement. Trade policies can also undermine those objectives. The focus of this paper is on examining how the facilitating role of trade can be achieved. One of the challenges created by the ‘bottom-up’ approach of self-declared national mitigation targets adopted in the Agreement is that if the economic costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are internalized in production and consumption, the implicit price of carbon will differ across countries. This creates the potential for trade distortions. Domestic mitigation policies in importers will almost inevitably result in some carbon leakage, i.e. offsets to reductions in domestic emissions through additional emissions generated in supplying imports. But an important distinction needs to be made between carbon reallocation and carbon misallocation resulting from changes in trade volumes. In the reallocation case, trade leads to a shift in production to lower-emitting producers thereby contributing to global mitigation. In the misallocation case, the opposite occurs. This paper analyses how various border measures, including border tax adjustments (BTAs) might be used to reduce potential carbon misallocation. The conclusion is that technical and legal constraints on the effective application of border measures for food and agricultural products to prevent carbon misallocation are extremely challenging and their use could open the door to protectionism. The use of carbon standards and labelling offers an alternative approach to reducing misallocation and promoting reallocation. It poses fewer technical difficulties and reduces the potential for legal challenges. An added advantage of labelling is that it can help to promote changes in consumption that will be needed to reduce the carbon footprint of food and agriculture. The use of the approach could be facilitated through the adoption of international standards for carbon measurement and labelling, such as those being developed through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Labelling is not a panacea and may have limited effectiveness when consumers base their consumption decisions primarily on the basis of price. For this reason, the use of domestic policy measures that increase carbon efficiency in agriculture (reduce emissions per unit of output) and limit changes in land use that contribute to emissions will also be important for achieving mitigation aims under the Paris Agreement. An increasing number of regional trade agreements (RTAs) have incorporated environmental provisions, with the most common types of provisions focusing on environmental cooperation. Recent agreements recognise the importance of mutually supportive trade and environmental policies, and national commitments to multinational environmental agreements. RTAs could play a supporting role to the Paris Climate Agreement, by fostering international cooperation on climate mitigation measures in the context of freer trade.
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    Parallel sessions: Climate change. Chapter Three of the Proceedings of the FAO International Symposium on the Role of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Sustainable Food Systems and Nutrition 2016
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    Chapter 3 contains the presentations dedicated to the theme of climate change adaptation and mitigation; climate change adaptation in the crop and forestry sectors, the use of biotechnologies in the adaptation to changing climate; livestock vaccines and market access; animal genetic resources; nitrogen management; biodiversity and economic aspects of climate change. The FAO international symposium on “The role of agricultural biotechnologies in sustainable food systems and nutrition” took p lace from 15 to 17 February 2016 at FAO headquarters, Rome. Over 400 people attended, including 230 delegates from 75 member countries and the European Union, as well as representatives of intergovernmental organizations, private sector entities, civil society organizations, academia/research organizations and producer organizations/cooperatives. The symposium encompassed the crop, livestock, forestry and fishery sectors and was organized around three main themes: i) climate change; ii) sustaina ble food systems and nutrition; and iii) people, policies, institutions and communities. The proceedings provide the main highlights of the symposium which covered a broad range of biotechnologies, from low-tech approaches such as those involving use of microbial fermentation processes, biofertilizers, biopesticides and artificial insemination, to high-tech approaches such as those involving advanced DNA-based methodologies and genetically modified organisms.

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