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Regaining Livelihoods for Pastoralist and Nomadic Communities in Sudan - TCP/SUD/3502









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    Document
    Plan of Action for North Sudan. Emergency response and rehabilitation for food and agriculture August 2010 – August 2012 2010
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    After decades of civil conflict and associated political instability, populations throughout North Sudan have seen their livelihoods and production capacity eroded and their ability to cope with human-induced and recurrent natural disasters (floods, droughts, outbreaks of livestock diseases) worn away. There have been considerable efforts to respond to the protracted crisis, with the international humanitarian response reaching USD 1.3 billion in 2009. Despite this, millions of people continue t o face severe and chronic food insecurity. With between 60 and 80 percent of the working-age population relying on agriculture to meet their food and income needs, the sector’s importance to economic recovery and the consolidation of peace in North Sudan cannot be underestimated. In this Plan of Action (PoA), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) outlines its emergency and rehabilitation programme for North Sudan in 2010–12. It does not include FAO’s long-term develop ment programme, but is designed to complement the Organization’s ongoing development activities, as well as the interventions of United Nations agencies, Government and other partners which aim to mitigate the effects of recurrent crises while addressing their root causes. The programme relies heavily on a disaster risk management approach to the complex situation in North Sudan. This approach focuses on emergency relief, such as replacing lost assets or restoring livelihoods, as well as on earl y efforts as part of risk reduction that protect and sustain livelihoods. Such interventions can often be more effective than those delayed until people are in crisis. Given the complex and protracted nature of the crisis in North Sudan, FAO’s relief and recovery programming is enhanced by interventions that not only restore, but also protect and promote livelihoods in food and agriculture. Thus, the overall purpose of the PoA for North Sudan is to improve preparedness and to make short-term res ponses in food and agriculture more effective. The proposed priorities in this PoA will help FAO, its counterparts and partners to meet shortterm needs in ways that strengthen the resilience of communities and lead to more effective and longer-term recovery. The approach is reflected in the six key areas of focus as proposed in this PoA, based on an analysis of the current situation, the main factors triggering food insecurity and assessments identifying and targeting vulnerable groups. These ar e: (i) dwindling agricultural production; (ii) reduced livestock production and productivity; (iii) the adverse effect of climate change and the conflicts created over the use of scarce natural resources and longer-term issues such as land access; (iv) economic factors that affect the livelihoods of the various groups, as well as the creation of alternative livelihood resources; (v) the need for institutional strengthening; and (vi) coordination of the international community and the assistance provided. The above priorities have been expanded into twelve sectoral programmes that detail activities to be implemented by FAO in North Sudan to achieve expected outcomes and address the specific needs identified in three regions: (i) Greater Darfur (comprising North, South and West Darfur); (ii) the Transitional Areas (Abyei, Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan); and (iii) Eastern Sudan (Gedaref, Kassala and Red Sea states). The total budget for the PoA 2010–2012 is USD 45 056 468. The PoA signa ls FAO’s adoption of a more programmatic approach in its emergency and rehabilitation activities in North Sudan. The document has used a programme cycle management approach to present the situation analysis, planned response and monitoring and evaluation framework. Through this PoA and other efforts, FAO is attempting to build greater programmatic coherence with internal and external partners, in line with national food security plans and related strategy and United Nations system programming fr amework. Fundamentally, this PoA is a dynamic programming tool that may need to be adjusted, according to contingency plans, when and as the food security situation evolves in North Sudan.
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    Book (series)
    Resilience analysis of pastoral and agropastoral communities in South Sudan’s cross-border areas with Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda
    FAO resilience analysis report No. 17 - Analysing resilience for better targeting and action
    2019
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    The IGAD member states are situated in a region exposed to recurrent natural shocks, political instability and characterized by internal and cross-border population displacement. Conflict is the root cause of food insecurity in South Sudan where about 6 million people were estimated to be severely food insecure in September 2017. Internal and cross-border displacement prevents households from engaging in typical livelihood activities, inhibits economic growth and disrupts markets and trade routes. Consequently, income-earning opportunities are limited, and the Government’s earnings in United States dollars are very low, which has led to hyperinflation. The European Union funded “Strengthening the Livelihoods Resilience of Pastoral and Agropastoral Communities in South Sudan’s Cross-border Areas with Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda” project that aims to improve governance and conflict prevention to reduce forced displacement and irregular migration in the cross-border areas of South Sudan. In that respect, this baseline study was conducted to benchmark resilience and food security indicators in the intervention areas and to gain a better understanding of the drivers of instability and irregular migration, as well as of the determinants of food security and resilience. The results show that households engaged in crop production and sales and host communities have a higher resilience while the internally displaced person, refugees and households residing in counties characterized by conflict and dwindling economic opportunities are the most exposed to food insecurity. The best way to increase the resilience of all types of livelihoods is to augment the assets held by households while boosting their adaptive capacity, especially by promoting the diversification of income sources and improving education levels. These efforts should target the least resilient populations in the cross border areas.
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    Booklet
    South Sudan: Contributions to mitigating conflict between mobile pastoral communities
    How the Pastoralist Livelihoods and Education Field Schools approach addresses conflict drivers and strengthens resilience in cattle camps
    2024
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    This learning brief documents the main lessons drawn from the South Sudan country investment project entitled Resilient Pastoral Livelihoods and Education implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and its partners. It showcases key learning on the role of the Pastoralist Livelihoods and Education Field School (PLEFS) approach in enhancing the food security and livelihoods resilience of mobile pastoral communities and households in South Sudan’s cattle camps. More specifically, this learning brief explores how and to what extent an approach like PLEFS contributes to mitigating conflict and building resilience in pastoral areas. The document unpacks the various building blocks of the PLEFS approach, to identify the extent to which they constituted contributory pathways to sustaining peace. It presents measured impacts and effects, witnessed by leaders and members of cattle camps, about the transformation of conflict dynamics. It also identifies opportunities created by PLEFS to establish new paradigms among pastoralist communities, in the economic, social and cultural dimensions of cattle camp life.

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