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Implementation of the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing

1. Methodologies and indicators for the estimation of the magnitude and impact of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing: 1.2 A practical guide to delivering an estimate











FAO. 2023. Implementation of the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing – 1. Methodologies and indicators for the estimation of the magnitude and impact of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing: 1.2 A practical guide to delivering an estimate. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, No. 9, Suppl. 1, Vol. 2. Rome.



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    Book (series)
    Implementation of the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
    1. Methodologies and indicators for the estimation of the magnitude and impact of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing: 1.3 A catalogue of examples
    2023
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    This document complements previous technical guidance documents on planning and executing illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing estimation studies by providing a catalogue of 26 estimation methodologies from published studies. These methodologies encompass a wide range of locations, fishing gear and IUU fishing types. The catalogue is organized around two ways of identifying relevant methodologies: a) the IUU fishing estimation approach; and b) the primary available data source. The five types of IUU fishing estimation approaches (“a”) include: 1) estimating total catch minus reported catch; 2) partitioning total catch into IUU/non-IUU fishing; 3) summing individual IUU fishing events to a total amount; 4) estimating “true” catches for suspect vessels or fleets; and 5) determining relative amounts or trends in IUU fishing. The four types of primary data sources (“b”) include: 1) fishery models; 2) commercial sources; 3) operational data; and 4) expert judgements, comparisons to catch compilations and stakeholder surveys. These two types of approaches help to identify the relevant methodologies presented as concise, individual one- to two-page summaries. Each methodology is described in terms of the key elements needed and how they can be sourced, the specific steps involved in constructing the estimate, and guidance on the applicability of the method.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    Implementation of the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
    1. Methodologies and indicators for the estimation of the magnitude and impact of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing: 1.1 Principles and approaches
    2023
    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) can play an important role in encouraging consistent and sound practices for estimating illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities around the world. This first volume in a series of guidance documents on this topic outlines guiding principles and approaches applicable to a broad range of IUU fishing estimation scenarios. It begins by defining which components of IUU fishing to estimate depending on the specific objectives of the exercise. It then helps to set boundaries for the estimation exercise based on the fishery, species, area and timeframe of interest. Top-down and bottom-up methodological approaches are introduced, with examples, as ways of partitioning an overall IUU fishing amount into component activities, or compiling estimates of IUU fishing at a granular scale to form an overall composite figure, respectively. Ideas for presenting results to maximize the uptake by stakeholders and decision-makers are also presented.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    Implementation of the International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
    1. Methodologies and indicators for the estimation of the magnitude and impact of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing: 1.4 Developing and using indicators of performance
    2024
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    Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing indicators apply readily available data and straightforward calculations to measure something that provides insight into – but does not actually estimate – the level of IUU fishing. In doing so, indicators aim to evaluate and monitor performance in combating IUU fishing, including highlighting where improvements in monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) systems are needed. Since they are easy to update and track over time, indicators offer an alternative to often resource-intensive quantitative IUU fishing estimation methods, and can be adapted across a broad range of fisheries. This document reviews various types of indicators and develops a universal framework based on detection, coverage and investment indicators for IUU fishing. It then presents four hypothetical case studies, illustrating how these indicators can be applied to different fisheries with different IUU fishing risks. Guidance is provided for customizing indicators to individual fisheries and for interpreting various combinations of indicators moving in different directions. However, IUU fishing problems can have multiple drivers, take various forms and produce mixed signals, making it difficult to provide interpretive guidance that is appropriate for all situations. For this reason, a variety of recommendations are presented for engaging stakeholders and drawing inferences from similar fisheries.

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