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National legal framework and current status of Indonesia fisheries: Steps to improve small-scale fishers livelihoods

Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme for South and Southeast Asia. (GCP/RAS/237/SPA)








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    Book (stand-alone)
    Current fisheries and aquaculture policies relevant to RFLP in Viet Nam
    Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme for South and Southeast Asia. (GCP/RAS/237/SPA)
    2010
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    The Fisheries sector is significant contribution to the economy of Vietnam, the export value in 2008 was US$ 4.509 billion. The fisheries and aquaculture sectors have expanded rapidly over the past decade, with aquaculture production rising from 1,202,500 to 2,430,944 tonnes over the period from 2004 to 2008, with more than 1.3 million MT tons of Pangasius and 450,000 MT of brackish and freshwater shrimp and prawn. Fisheries production in 2008 was about 2,134 thousand tons, of which marine captu re contributed 1,937 thousand tons. The natural resources, particularly inshore fisheries are considered to be over-exploited with many high valued fish resources having declined to low levels. The number of vessels has increased continuously without control since 1980. This leads to increased competition in inshore areas. In order to earn a living, fishermen use many destructive fishing gears and bad practices including smaller mesh sizes than required, other destructive fishing methods like el ectricity, poisons, dynamite. As a result, fish of all sizes are captured, including young and fingerling fish. In recent years, the Government of Vietnam has enacted many policies to support the aim of sustainable development, and poverty reduction while protecting natural resources. To reduce fishing pressure in coastal areas, many programs have been promoted by the Government including offshore fisheries, aquaculture development, services on sea development and infrastructure development. The offshore fishing vessels under Government’s offshore fishing program are supported by a credit scheme for boat construction, upgrading of fishing vessels and offshore fishing services. Considered one of the major alternative activities to diversify income for coastal communities, the aquaculture sector has received increasingly strong support under Government of Vietnam policy over the past 20 years. The main focus has been on the establishment of infrastructure for aquaculture development, and to convert saline paddy fields, low lying land, land used for salt production, flooded land and other unproductive land to aquaculture. In addition Government policy has supported fishers and farmers in isolated areas through credit schemes. Micro-finance is conducted through the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD), the Commercial Investment Bank (CIB) and the Bank for Social Policy (BSP). BSP mainly provides subsidized loans to poor households, while VBARD and CIB make l arge loans to enterprises. These policies have supported fishermen investing in pond construction, buying of equipment, seed, feeds and other items. To protect natural resources and bio-diversity the following activities have been implemented: Fishing licensing, control of productivity in specific marine areas, protection of rare and precious species that are in danger of extinction, restocking to enhance breeding population size and density, protection of aquatic habitats, and rehabilitation an d protection of fisheries resources etc. Co-management is considered as a potential tool for sustainable utilization of fisheries resources in Vietnam, particularly for small-scale fisheries. In Vietnam, co-management has recently been included in many policy instruments and pilots are in operation in Vietnam with varying degrees of success. Vietnam has set up and is continuously improving the law, regulations and standards on conditions for food safety, environment and animal health protection , which meets most of the provisions, articles for technical barriers to trade (TBT) and Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) measures on food quality and safety of fish and fishery products, from aquaculture to processing and trading of fish and fishery products. The assurance of food safety needs requires the use of a systematic approach from raw material production, handling, processing, preservation and distribution of fish and fishery product to the customers. Over last 20 years, the Vietnam g overnment has enacted many policies to improve safety and reduce vulnerability for fishing communities such as policies on improving safety for fishermen and fishing boats at sea, support of radio communication devices for owner of fishing boats, support to fishermen to overcome natural risks at sea, support to protecting and reduce the affects of natural calamities at sea, insurance support for vessels and fishers, establish anchorages and storm shelters, and establishment of information networ ks on sea and islands, etc.
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    Book (series)
    Pilot project: Introduction of alternative income generating activities for livelihood diversification for fishing dependent communities on the Islands of the three riparian States of Lake Victoria
    GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project
    2013
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    The Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, with support from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, under the implementation of a regional strategy for the Eastern and Southern African - Indian Ocean region program, is implementing a pilot project: ‘The Introduction of Alternative Income Generating Activities for Livelihood Diversification for Fishing Dependent Communities on the Islands of the Three Riparian States of Lake Victoria’. A baseline survey on vulnerability/livel ihood/poverty in all project target areas/groups was undertaken in June 2013. The purpose was to establish vulnerability indicators and livelihood/dependency/poverty patterns associated with selected self-help groups located on selected islands of Lake Victoria in the riparian countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The other objective was to identify potential alternative income generating activities that would reduce dependency on fishing and fish resources. The selected self-help groups and th eir respective beaches and islands are: Nyisiaya Women’s Group in Ndeda Beach, on Ndeda Island and USIA Youth Group in Mahanga, on Mageta Island (Kenya); Mpola Mpola at Gori, on Jagusi Island and Ddajje Star Group in Ddajje, on Buggala Island (Uganda); REEC/UPENDO in Ihumbo, on Bumbire Island and NEEMA Community Group in Igalula, on Ukerewe Island (Tanzania). The six self-help groups and respective fishing communities were interviewed by means of focus group discussions and personal interviews o n major areas of concern: group status; ownership of assets; access to services; vulnerability; income and expenditure; poverty and gender. The results show that the fisher communities are primarily concerned with, in order of priority: health; declining fish catches; safety on the lake; credit access, and education. The fishers acknowledge their high dependence on fish stating that during times of drought, market fluctuations and weather changes the communities are more vulnerable. They therefo re understand the need for diversification of income. The survey findings show that most self-help groups were formed to augment income, food and access to credit. The majority of the members of the self-help groups have access to land; semi-permanent housing; a few of their own livestock; two meals a day; no means of their own transport; no access to electricity; inadequate access to safe water; low savings; and little or no education. The study shows that food and education are the main expend iture items and there is little money available for diversification into non-fishery income generating activities. The different alternative income generating activities (IGAs) were proposed to supplement income, diversify sources of income and provide food. The IGAs include: crop farming, identified for food security and supplementary income for group members’ households; poultry farming for eggs and meat to generate income; cattle rearing for milk and meat to generate income and supplement die t; fish farming to diversify, generate income and reduce fishing pressure on Lake Victoria.  4 The next steps are to support the target groups technically and financially so that they can undertake the proposed IGAs to meet their respective goals. In line with the objectives of the project, the following activities will be undertaken:  Organize and facilitate a one-day validation meeting for at least 20 relevant stakeholders to present the results of the assessment and proposed work plans an d interventions at the premises of the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization;  Capacity building of micro-project stakeholders and beneficiaries to sustain the initiative (business, marketing, management of micro-enterprises);  Carry out the livelihood diversification activities according to the work plans and detailed budget agreed;  Disseminate the preliminary results of the livelihood diversification activities through different media at the national level;  Organize and facilitate a final meeting at the national level for at least 20 relevant stakeholders to present the results of the poverty reduction activities and the proposed upscale/replication of interventions.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Review on the current status of fisheries/aquaculture and policies of Cambodia relevant to RFLP
    Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme for South and Southeast Asia. (GCP/RAS/237/SPA)
    2010
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    Cambodia is endowed with rich fisheries resources provided by both the freshwater fisheries of the Mekong and the Tonle Sap river system, and coastal and offshore marine fisheries. The fisheries sector in Cambodia plays a very important role in the national economy, making a significant contribution to employment and livelihoods of the poor, to food security and to GDP. Fisheries production is estimated to be worth around US$ 200-300 million at the point of landing, and the fisheries harvest, pr ocessing and trade contributes 8-12% of GDP. The export value of fish products is estimated to be as high as US$ 100 million annually. Cambodian people and especially the rural poor consume on average 52.4kg of aquatic products per person per year (MRC Technical Paper, number 16, 2007). Cambodia’s fisheries provide full-time, part-time and seasonal employment for up to 6 million people, and the employment provided is especially important in the rural areas where there are few job opportunities. The fisheries sector make a very significantly contribution to domestic food security especially to rural communities, providing 81.5% of the animal protein in the national diet and also providing a critical source of essential vitamins and micro-nutrients. The Royal Government of Cambodia, has recognized how important and crucial the sector is to people's livelihoods, to national well-being and the national economy, and one side of the national Rectangular Strategy is devoted to fisheries refor ms aimed at law enforcement, action plan development and implementation, and strengthening of all the relevant institutions to enable them to achieve national goals for environmental fisheries protection, conservation of bio-diversity, socio-economic development, good governance and poverty alleviation. These goals are clearly stated in the Royal Cambodian Government's political program for the fisheries sector, as well as in the Socio-Economic Development Plan, the Preliminary Strategy of Pover ty Alleviation, and the Good Governance Action Plan. Moreover, the Royal Government of Cambodia’s statement on the national fisheries sector policy was endorsed in 2005 and the Strategic Planning Framework for Fisheries 2010-2019 (SPF) was drafted in 2009, and will be endorsed soon in 2010. In an effort to achieve the above goals, policies and plans, significant time, manpower and funds have been committed by the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) and by bi-lateral and regional Development Partn ers (DP). However, much work and many additional activities remain to be done and these require technical and financial assistance support on a priority basis. It is timely that the Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Program (RFLP) was endorsed to provide support to the Fisheries Administration (FiA), since it will improve fisheries management and livelihoods opportunities in the four coastal provinces of Cambodia. This paper was drafted to provide an overview of the current RGC policies, both withi n the fisheries sector, but also of other sectors which will impact on the ability of RFLP in Cambodia to successfully achieve its five national outputs. Development of co-management mechanisms;  Improved safety at sea and reduced vulnerability;  Improved post-harvest and marketing;  Strengthening of existing livelihoods and livelihood diversification; and  Facilitated access to micro-finance services. In addition the paper provides recommendations on what and how the Regional Fisheries Live lihoods Program (RFLP) can contribute to the implementation and achievement of the national fisheries policies and plans in Cambodia.

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