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Fruit and vegetables

Opportunities and challenges for small-scale sustainable farming

FAO and CIRAD. 2021. Fruit and vegetables – Opportunities and challenges for small-scale sustainable farming. Rome. 

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    Promoting fruit and vegetable value chains to improve supply and consumption 2021
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    Policies with a focus on fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) need special consideration because of the high perishability and susceptibility of F&Vs to waste and loss, high labour demand, yield variations, and high consumer prices. Factors that limit the availability and affordability of F&Vs include low production and productivity, the loss of agrobiodiversity, inadequate technology, logistics and infrastructure, weak organizational, business and technical skills, and inefficient market linkages across the supply chain. Many value chains for F&Vs need improvements, investments and shortening as well as gender-responsive approaches, including gender-sensitive investments, to achieve better producer prices, lower risk and higher quality, especially for small farmers.
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    Food loss prevention and reduction analysis in Indonesia
    A case study on chili, cabbage and shallot
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    Food loss and waste within Indonesia's supply chains present significant challenges to both environmental sustainability and efficient natural resource utilization. This pervasive issue spans from food production to retail, affecting the ability of supply chain stakeholders to invest in essential infrastructure improvements. Food waste, in particular, accumulates at various stages, including retail, catering services, and households, further straining natural resources and exacerbating climate change impacts.In Indonesia, the reduction and prevention of food losses assume strategic importance as it directly impacts food availability, accessibility, and the well-being of consumers. Additionally, it alleviates pressure on natural resources, supports the growth of agribusiness, and enhances the livelihoods of farmers and other actors along the supply chains. Key factors closely linked to addressing food losses in Indonesia include finance, technology, knowledge, and market dynamics. Alarmingly, horticultural commodities, especially vegetables, experience losses exceeding 60 percent. Minimizing food losses not only bolsters productivity for agripreneurs but also improves food security and nutrition for all, from vulnerable smallholder farmers to micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs).To address these challenges, Indonesia has enacted national law No. 13/2020 on horticulture, encompassing fruits and vegetables, with the aim of creating jobs, enhancing production, productivity, quality, added value, competitive advantage, and market share. In a recent study conducted between June and December 2022, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Center of System, a logistics research institution, analysed food losses in chili, cabbage and shallot supply chains. These commodities, predominantly cultivated by smallholder farmers, play a vital role in stabilizing food prices, controlling regional inflation, and ensuring food availability and accessibility. The study not only identifies the extent of quality and quantity losses but also provides practical solutions for their reduction.Crucially, enhancing the implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), and good hygiene practices (GHP) is emphasized, particularly during harvest, transportation, handling and storage. Recommendations include establishing post-harvest technical assistance facilities, agrologistic centres, and value-added processing facilities to mitigate losses due to quality degradation. Furthermore, the abstract underscores the need for innovation in technology, private-sector investment, and raising public awareness as decisive elements in substantially reducing food loss. In conclusion, addressing food loss is paramount for enhancing food security, supporting sustainable livelihoods, and fortifying the overall food system in Indonesia.
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    Outline Report. Regional project completion workshop “Small-Scale Farmer Inclusion in Organic Agriculture Development through Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS)”
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    In 2013, during the “Asia Pacific Symposium on Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Organic Farming” jointly organized by FAO and IFOAM- Organics international, countries requested technical assistance for the establishment and promotion of Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) certification schemes in the region. In response to this request and an increasing demand for organic products from consumers in the region to ensure food safety, an FAO pilot project on “Small-Scale Farmer Inclusion in Organic Agriculture Development through Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS)” (TCP/RAS/3510) initiated on 01 September 2015 and ended on 31 December 2017. The project’s outcome was “an increased number of farmers produce organic crops and market them in a remunerative way to increased number of consumers through PGS” and was implemented by FAO and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in Cambodia and by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in Lao PDR, in collaboration with international partners such as IFOAM- Organics international, Earth Net Foundation (ENF) and many other local partners, including the Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture (CEDAC), the Center for Organic Development, Cambodia (COD), the Natural Agriculture Village Cambodia (NAV), Caritas Cambodia, Groupe de Recherches et d’Echanges Technologiques Lao PDR (GRET) and the Sustainable Agriculture and Environment Development Association Lao PDR (SAEDA

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