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Farming Systems and Poverty - SUMMARY

Improving farmers’ livelihoods in a changing world







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    Book (stand-alone)
    The State of Food and Agriculture 2015 (SOFA): Social Protection and Agriculture: Breaking the Cycle of Rural Poverty 2015
    Despite significant progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals on poverty and hunger, almost a billion people still live in extreme poverty (less than $1.25 per person per day) and 795 million still suffer from chronic hunger. Much more will have to be done to achieve the new Sustainable Development Goals on eradicating poverty and hunger by 2030. Most of the extreme poor live in rural areas of developing countries and depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. They are so poor and m alnourished that their families live in a cycle of poverty that passes from generation to generation. Many developing countries are adopting a successful new strategy for breaking the cycle of rural poverty – combining social protection and agricultural development. Social protection measures such as cash benefits for widows and orphans and guaranteed public works employment for the poor can protect vulnerable people from the worst deprivation. It can allow households to increase and diversify t heir diets. It can also help them save and invest on their own farms and or start new businesses. Agricultural development programmes that support small family farms in accessing markets and managing risks can create employment opportunities that make these families more self-reliant and resilient. Social protection and agricultural development, working together, can break the cycle of rural poverty.
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    Booklet
    Ending poverty and hunger through investment in agriculture and rural areas 2017
    While there has been an unprecedented achievement in poverty reduction in the last three decades, eradicating extreme poverty and halving poverty by 2030 are still two of our greatest challenges. Today, about 767 million people continue to live in extreme poverty. Roughly, two thirds of the extreme poor live in rural areas, and the majority are concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In the past 30 years, private and public investments in agriculture and rural areas have remained stag nant or have declined in most developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where poverty and hunger are most prevalent. With the adoption of the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, countries have renewed their commitment to fight poverty, hunger and malnutrition, recognising that equitable and sustainable growth and inclusive structural transformation are key to achieving sustainable development and moving lifting people out of poverty. The 2030 Agenda is th us an opportunity to focus public and private investments in reaching the poorest of the poor, particularly in rural areas of the developing world. This task will not be simple and will require changing the way we think and act in relation to rural development. Investments today need to take into account natural resource conservation and sustainable agricultural production, including investing in climate smart technologies. To achieve SDG 1 and SDG 2, each country and region will have to evaluat e its own pathways out of poverty; however, country experiences suggest that both social and economic interventions are equally important in reducing poverty . Economic growth (e.g. in agriculture) is not enough. To promote rural development and inclusion, countries must take specific policy and programmatic actions that reach the poor directly. This should include a combination of social and economic policies that address today’s challenges and enable and empower rural people to earn a living a nd shape their livelihoods.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Guidance on addressing child labour in fisheries and aquaculture 2013
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    Child labour is a major concern in many parts of the world and it is estimated that there are some 215 million child labourers worldwide. Aggregate data indicate that about 60 per cent of child labourers – that is over 129 million children – work in agriculture, including fisheries and aquaculture. While there are limited disaggregated data on child labour specifically related to fisheries and aquaculture, case-specific evidence points to significant numbers. Children engage in a wide va riety of activities in capture fishing, aquaculture and all associated operations (processing, marketing and other postharvest activities), as well as in upstream industries including net making and boatbuilding. Children also perform household chores in their fishing and fish farming families and communities. When child labour is used as cheap labour to cut fishing costs, not only is harmful to the children, it may also have a negative effect on the sustainability of the fishery activ ity. Child labour appears to be particularly widespread in the small- and medium-scale sectors of the informal economy where decent work is poorly organised or absent. Although there is a widely ratified international legal framework to address child labour, – comprising ILO Conventions and other agreements, laws are effective only if they are applied and enforced, with incentives to ensure compliance. Addressing child labour is rarely high on the national agenda of social dialogue, legislation review and institution building. Its elimination is difficult because it is part of production systems, is nested in the context of poverty and relates closely to social injustices. Communities and institutions are often not fully aware of the negative individual and collective social and economic consequences of child labour. Practical and realistic pathways for improving the current situation and community engagement and buy-in are essential for successful results. More i nformation on child labour is needed to raise awareness at all levels. A critical first step towards eliminating child labour, in particular its worst forms, is to understand what constitutes hazardous work and what tasks and occupations are acceptable for children above the minimum legal age for employment. Not all activities performed by children are child labour. Convention on Minimum Age, 1973 (No 138), and Convention on the Worst Forms if Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182), define child labour on the basis of a child’s age, the hours and conditions of work, activities performed and hazards involved. Child labour is work that interferes with compulsory schooling and damages health and personal development. Concerted efforts are needed to effectively address child labour with multistakeholder participation and involving governments, development partners, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), employers’ and workers’ associations and other socioprofessional organization s, the private sector and communities (including children and youth). By applying holistic, participatory, integrated and feasible approaches, a better life for millions of children can be created.

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