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Risk Assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Seafood. Interpretative summary and Technical Report. Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) 16













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    Book (series)
    Risk assessment tools for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus associated with seafood
    Meeting report
    2020
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    There has been an increase in reported outbreaks and cases of foodborne disease attributed to pathogenic Vibrio species. As a result, there have been several instances where the presence of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in seafood has led to a disruption in international trade. A number of Vibrio spp. are increasingly being recognized as potential human pathogens. The food safety concerns associated with these microorganisms have led to the need for microbiological risk assessment for their control. This report provides the review of risk assessment of existing tools for V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters and different bivalve molluscan species, the available information on testing methodology and recommend microbiological methods to monitor the levels of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in seafood and/or water. Such tools are envisioned to support countries in their efforts to use risk-based approaches in the selection of control measures appropriate for their seafood species, primary production and post-harvest practices. This volume and others in this Microbiological Risk Assessment Series contain information that is useful to both risk assessors and risk managers, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, governments and regulatory authorities, food producers and processers and other institutions and individuals with an interest in Vibrio spp. and its control.
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    Book (series)
    Advances in science and risk assessment tools for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus associated with seafood
    Meeting report
    2021
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    Globally, the Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus represent important human pathogens associated with the consumption of seafood. In response to the requests for scientific advice from Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH), risk assessments for the pathogens V. vulnificus, V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and guidance on methods for the detection of Vibrio spp. with seafood have been conducted and published previously by JEMRA. In order to provide an update on the state-of-the-art advice regarding risk assessment for V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in seafood, an expert meeting was convened. Several critical developments in the last decade were subsequently noted by the expert working group: 1) The emergence of highly pathogenic strains; 2) In response to climate change, there has been a significant geographical spread regarding when and where these seafood-associated Vibrio infections; 3) Demographic considerations are very important; 4) A range of new approaches for best practice; and 5) A range of new methods, such as those utilising genomics and satellite imagery. This report describes the output of that expert meeting.
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    Risk Assessment of choleragenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in Warm-Water Shrimp in International Trade. Interpretative Summary and Technical Report. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series (MRA) 9 2006
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    Outbreaks of cholera have been associated with consumption of seafood including oysters, crabs and shrimp (Oliver and Kaper, 1997). In the early 1990s, a pandemic of cholera swept through South and Central America. The outbreaks seemed to begin in Peru, where there were more than 400 000 cases and 4 000 deaths (Wolfe, 1992). However, the mortality rate may have been higher but for the readily available oral electrolyte stations throughout Latin America, established as a precaution when WHO anticipated the pandemic would jump from Africa to Latin America. Although no cases of cholera were associated with the consumption of commercial seafood, the industry, including shrimp exports, were negatively affected. The outbreak in the 1990s cost Peru US$ 770 million as a result of food trade embargos and adverse effects on tourism (WHO, no date). Similarly, the European Union (EU) banned importation of fish from eastern Africa as a result of an outbreak of cholera in the reg ion. This ban lasted from late December 1997 until June 1998, even though opinions of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization rejected the restriction indicating it was "not the most appropriate response" (FAO, 1998).

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