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Sustainable Wildlife Management (SWM) Programme Policy Brief - Build back better in a post COVID-19 world

Reducing future wildlife-borne spillover of disease to humans










FAO, CIRAD, CIFOR and WCS. 2020. Sustainable Wildlife Management (SWM) Programme Policy Brief - Build Back Better in a post COVID world: Reducing future wildlife-borne spillover of disease to humans. Rome, FAO.



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    White paper: Build back better in a post-COVID-19 world – Reducing future wildlife-borne spillover of disease to humans
    Sustainable Wildlife Management (SWM) Programme
    2020
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    This white paper aims to provide Northern and Southern Development partners and decision-makers with a better understanding of a) why spillover of disease from wildlife to humans occurs, and why these zoonotic disease outbreaks can spread and become epidemics and pandemics such as COVID-19, and b) what they can do to prevent, detect and respond to future spillover events, with a special focus on priority interventions at the human-wildlife-livestock interfaces. It has been produced as part of the Sustainable Wildlife Management (SWM) Programme, which will deliver critical lessons on how to prevent, detect and respond to future spillover events with appropriate national and transboundary policies and practices in the context of the SWM partner sites. The SWM Programme is a major international initiative to improve the conservation and sustainable use of wildlife in the forest, savannah, and wetland ecosystems. Field projects are being implemented in 13 African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries. The aim is to: improve how wildlife hunting is regulated; increase the supply of sustainably produced meat products and farmed fish; strengthen the management capacities of indigenous and rural communities; and reduce demand for wild meat, particularly in towns and cities. It is being implemented by a dynamic consortium of four partners with expertise in wildlife conservation and food security: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). For more information, please visit the SWM Programme website: www.swm-programme.info.
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    Policy brief
    Reducing pandemic risks at source: Wildlife, environment and One Health foundations in East and South Asia
    Executive Summary
    2022
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    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are infections associated with new or significantly-expanded geographic scope or spread of zoonotic, vector-borne, and drug-resistant pathogens. The majority of EIDs have animal origins, and of those, the most recent EIDs are tied to wildlife. They are also increasing in frequency, with reoccurring outbreaks causing epidemics and pandemics exacting tremendous health and economic costs on individuals, nations, and the global economy. Strategies to reduce EID risks and better prevent future events from happening, need to comprehensively include wildlife - and the multiple interactions between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans - in a holistic way. ‘One Health’ addresses this, with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes while recognizing the interconnections between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. In this report, we explore the root causes of pathogen spillover and disease emergence from wildlife to humans in East and South Asia, we review existing strengths and gaps of One Health systems, and provide recommendations to improve their performance by better including wildlife considerations. We describe human practices that increase exposure to pathogens, and specific, tangible actions to reduce risks along the chain, prioritizing the wildlife trade, food systems, and the environment. The report argues that investing in prevention of wildlife-originated human EIDs at source is extremely cost-effective, and is thus to be viewed as a public good, with benefits within and across national boundaries. The cost of inaction, by contrast, is very high.
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    Book (stand-alone)
    Reducing pandemics risks at source: Wildlife, environment and One Health foundations in East and South Asia 2022
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    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are infections associated with new or significantly-expanded geographic scope or spread of zoonotic, vector-borne, and drug-resistant pathogens. The majority of EIDs have animal origins, and of those, the most recent EIDs are tied to wildlife. They are also increasing in frequency, with recurring outbreaks causing epidemics and pandemics exacting tremendous health and economic costs on individuals, nations, and the global economy. Strategies to reduce EID risks and better prevent future events from happening, need to comprehensively include wildlife - and the multiple interactions between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans - in a holistic way. ‘One Health’ addresses this, with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes while recognizing the interconnections between people, animals, plants, and their shared environments. In this report, we explore the root causes of pathogen spillover and disease emergence from wildlife to humans in East and South Asia, we review existing strengths and gaps of One Health systems, and provide recommendations to improve their performance by better including wildlife considerations. We describe human practices that increase exposure to pathogens, and specific, tangible actions to reduce risks along the chain, prioritizing the wildlife trade, food systems, and the environment. The report argues that investing in prevention of wildlife-originated human EIDs at source is extremely cost-effective, and is thus to be viewed as a public good, with benefits within and across national boundaries. The cost of inaction, by contrast, is very high.

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