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Conserving the Agrobiodiversity heritage of the Koraput Region, India and Establishment of a Genetic Heritage Park. Format for Proposals of Candidate Systems for the Globally-important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Programme

Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)









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    “From Machupicchu to Lake Titicaca”. Format for Proposals of Candidate Systems For The Globally-important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Programme
    Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)
    2006
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    Actual presence of traditional agricultural knowledge includes terraces, ridges fields, local irrigation systems and traditional agricultural tools, crops and livestock spread at different altitudes that goes from mesothermic areas at 2400 m. altitude called “Quechua” agroecological zone, with maize as the main crop, to the coldest environment used for the marginal cultivation of a great number of native crops and varieties including frost resistant crops as quinua, kañiwa and high altitude tubers (Table 1). Mostly native livestock is grazing the native pastures with llamas and alpacas at high altitudes over 4,300 m, in the so called “Puna” agroecological zone.
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    The GIAHS – Rice Culture System Wannian County in Jiangxi Province, P. R. China. Format for Proposal of Candidate Systems for the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) Programme
    Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)
    2016
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    Wannian traditional rice is a remarkable old and prototype variety, firstly grown in Heqiao village during the North and South Dynasty (420 AD - 589 AD). Formerly, it is called “Wuyuanzao” and commonly known as “Manggu”. It is a location-specific variety to Heqiao village, and cannot be grown in other areas; It was tested and verified that it can be only grown under the water, soil combination and climate condition in Heqiao village. The traditional rice needs the perennial cold spring water for irrigation, and surrounding forests play a crucial role in soil and water conservation. The surrounding forests and paddy fields are part of the same biodiversity-rich agro-forestry system. The rice is resistant to insects and adapted to low soil fertility. Hence farmers do not need to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides, resulting in a sustainable planting environment and contributing to the biodiversity conservation. Ingenious Wannian people have also documented their experiences in culti vating traditional rice and rice culture since time immemorial. The rice culture is closely related to their daily life, expressed in their customs, food, language, and form an important part of their cultural diversity.
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    Ingenious agricultural heritage in cold oases connected to collective grazing areas (Haut Atlas, Maroc)
    Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)
    2014
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    In the High Atlas mountains of Morocco, cold oases connected to rangelands and collective grazing areas have been created by Amazigh people despite extreme climate conditions. Throughout centuries of isolation, they have maintained their cultural heritage (agricultural, social, artisanal and linguistic). These people and their culture are today recognisd by the Moroccan Constitution as an integral part of national identity. Over many centuries, they have developed astute systems to manage natu ral resources, that are still in place today, to ensure food self sufficiency. Indeed, varieties of wheat, barley, corn, alfalfa, apricots, almonds… are exceptional, as well as varieties of aromatic and medicinal plants. There is also one bee species, and associated biodiversity (fishes (salmonids), mamals, reptiles…). The rational use of rangelands for grazing is well established; fertile areas (agdals) are controled by precise regulations dependent on rotational system (fallow time, and gra zing pressure limitation). Water management is controled by a local hydraulic and legal culture: century old conducts: khettaras, and customary right and institutions.

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