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Main diseases of honey bees








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    European Foulbrood (EFB) 2015
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    The European Foulbrood (EFB) is a bacterial disease that affects the honey bee brood. The genetic resistance of some species of bees to this disease may allow, especially in favourable environmental conditions, to overcome the infection without suffering serious damage. However, it should be noted that, even if characterised by a better prognosis than the American Foulbrood, in some areas the EFB has a more malignant manifestation, seriously damaging even very strong bee colonies. This practice describes the causes and symptoms of EFB, how the disease spreads, and how to address and prevent the disease.
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    Animal nutrition strategies and options to reduce the use of antimicrobials in animal production 2021
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    Antimicrobial resistance is a global and increasing threat. Stewardship campaigns have been established, and policies implemented, to safeguard the appropriate use of antimicrobials in humans, animals, and plants. Restrictions on their use in animal production are on the agenda worldwide. Producers are investing in measures, involving biosecurity, genetics, health care, farm management, animal welfare, and nutrition, to prevent diseases and minimize the use of antimicrobials. Functional animal nutrition to promote animal health is one of the tools available to decrease the need for antimicrobials in animal production. Nutrition affects the critical functions required for host defence and disease resistance. Animal nutrition strategies should therefore aim to support these host defence systems and reduce the risk of the presence in feed and water of potentially harmful substances, such as mycotoxins, anti-nutritional factors and pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. General dietary measures to promote gastrointestinal tract health include the selective use of a combination of feed additives and feed ingredients to stabilize the intestinal microbiota and support mucosal barrier function. This knowledge, used to establish best practices in animal nutrition, could allow the adoption of strategies to reduce the need for antimicrobials and contain antimicrobial resistance.
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    Good beekeeping practices: Practical manual on how to identify and control the main diseases of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) 2020
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    This is a practical tool to help beekeepers, veterinarians and beekeeping advisory services to properly identify main honeybee diseases and to take the most appropriate actions in the apiary to control and/or prevent disease outbreaks. This publication follows the TECA publication Main bee diseases: good beekeeping practices (2018) which provided a more general overview of good beekeeping practices for bee diseases. This manual is a unique publication because, through its presentation of practical information, simple visuals, and understandable content, it helps beekeepers to correctly identify main honeybee diseases in a timely manner. More specifically, the manual creatively illustrates actions which facilitate the identification of disease symptoms. It also presents a comprehensive list of good beekeeping practices to adopt in the apiary as well as biosafety measures to reduce the risk of the introduction and the spread of main honeybee diseases. The manual’s overall objective is ultimately to support a more sustainable beekeeping sector.

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